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U.S. Tomahawk Missiles Deployed Near China Send Message. Is this considered a threat to the Chinese government ?

But this one was different: for nearly three years, the U.S. in its neighborhood. The 14 Trident-carrying subs are useful in the unlikely event of a nuclear Armageddon, and Russia remains their prime target. “There’s been a decision to bolster our forces in the Pacific,” says Bonnie Glaser, a China expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. A new class of U.S. military has used repeatedly against targets in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Iraq and Sudan. Florida surfaced, also on the same day, at the joint U.S.-British naval base on Diego Garcia, a flyspeck of an island in the Indian Ocean.

Source : http://news.yahoo.com/

Their capability makes watching these particular submarines especially interesting. Instead, they hold up to 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles each, capable of hitting anything within 1,000 miles with non-nuclear warheads. It was an Ohio-class submarine, which for decades carried only nuclear missiles targeted against the Soviet Union, and then Russia. Michigan arrived in Pusan, South Korea, on the same day. U.S.S. More alarms were likely sounded when the U.S.S. But the Tomahawk-outfitted quartet carries a weapon that the U.S. And the Klaxons would have maxed out as the U.S.S. Four of the 18 ballistic-missile subs no longer carry nuclear-tipped Trident missiles. military in the Pacific.)

. superweapon had suddenly surfaced nearby. (See pictures of the U.S. Navy has been dispatching modified “boomers” to who knows where (they do travel underwater, after all). In all, the Chinese military awoke to find as many as 462 new Tomahawks deployed by the U.S. “There is no doubt that China will stand up and take notice.”

If China’s satellites and spies were working properly, there would have been a flood of unsettling intelligence flowing into the Beijing headquarters of the Chinese navy last week. That’s why alarm bells would have sounded in Beijing on June 28 when the Tomahawk-laden 560-ft. Ohio popped up in the Philippines’ Subic Bay

Blackhawks stay patient and perfect in postseason overtime

They’re a championship team and they don’t die,” Anaheim’s Andrew Cogliano said.

CHICAGO (AP) — One lucky bounce.

“I think if were ever in that situation again,” he said, “we’ll clean up. Instead of wondering, ‘How did we let that slip?’ guys were telling each other, ‘Forget that we had them 3-1.’”

Antoine Vermette, who was switched out of Game 3 for “fresher legs” by coach Joel Quenneville, notched the game winner 5:37 into the extra period. But Toews said his teammate isn’t the only Blackhawks with a short memory when it comes to disappointment.

What remains to be seen is how quickly the Ducks can put another tough loss behind them.. After all this time, I think there’s just this feeling we’ll eventually find that break.”

The Blackhawks forced the extra period on a goal by Patrick Kane. But the longer play went on, the less tenuous their grip looked. Vermette’s first wrister from the deep slot was blocked, but he collected the rebound and coolly held his second shot until he was at a tight angle along the left goal line — testing his nerves against those of Ducks netminder Frederik Andersen.

“It’s going to be a long series. In the span of 37 seconds, assisted by several Chicago miscues, the Ducks beat Chicago goaltender Corey Crawford three times in 37 seconds.

By some measures, Vermette should have been the most impatient guy on Chicago’s bench, since he wound up watching Game 3 on television, occasionally hopping on an exercise bike to work off the nervous energy.

View galleryChicago Blackhawks center Jonathan Toews (19) celebrates…Chicago Blackhawks center Jonathan Toews (19) celebrates with Antoine Vermette after Vermette’s …

“Not too pleasant” is the way Vermette described the unwanted time off. They’ve now gone into extra time four times and won them all, including a 5-4 decision Saturday night that marked their second overtime win against the Anaheim Ducks and evened their Western Conference finals series at 2-2.

“This is a really comfortable group,” Toews said. … They know we’re not going to give up.”

Chicago BlackhawksAntoine VermetteAnaheim DucksThe Blackhawks

“I was trying to find the puck …I didn’t see it,” Andersen said afterward. “I tried to take away the bottom of the ice, but he was able to lift it.”

It might not sound like much of a strategy for playing sudden-death hockey, but patience has kept the Chicago Blackhawks perfect in overtime this postseason.

It was a stunning reversal of fortune.

View galleryAnaheim Ducks goalie Frederik Andersen skates off the…Anaheim Ducks goalie Frederik Andersen skates off the ice as Chicago Blackhawks celebrate an Antoine …

The Blackhawks built a 3-1 lead less than eight minutes into the third period, then protected it like a pee wee squad already planning the postgame pizza party. … “We know to keep working for that one lucky bounce. The Ducks piled up a 17-5 margin in shots in the first overtime, and 4-2 through the early going in the second.

Blackhawks stay patient and perfect in postseason overtime – Yahoo News

But he quickly added that “we put a little more doubt in their minds” by storming back into the lead, and that despite Chicago’s edge in playoff experience, the extra minutes being logged by their defensemen since Mikael Roszival went down with an injury will pay dividends for the Ducks the longer the series runs.

But Quenneville and captain Jonathon Toews said Chicago’s extensive postseason experience — 10-8 in overtime games when these playoffs began, with two Stanley Cups to their credit in the last five years — helps the Blackhawks stay calm in sudden-death periods, even when the momentum appears to be headed in the opposite direction.

“I think some teams wouldn’t have been as calm with themselves

Has Anyone ever been Disfellowshiped Before? (JW’s plz) It sucks.. Still trying to get back. I just need someone to talk to.

After about six months of this she wrote a letter to the society asking to be reinstated; she was turned down.

. Not repentant enough, or something like that. I remember her coming to meetings and just sitting.

I wasn’t DF’d because I was never baptized, I was “disassociated,” which is like Disfellowshipping Lite, because I asked to be removed from the congregation. Afterward she would just go sit in the car. She ended up leaving “The Truth” completely, and almost 20 years later, doesn’t look back at all. However, my sister was DF’d

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

Nelson.

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. According to Sen. D. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. wants to stop proliferation.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

Copyright 2003 CBS. The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

By Jarrett Murphy

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

Last year, the U.S. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. arsenal. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. All rights reserved.

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S.

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. In the modern U.S. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S

Northern Marts. – Free Online Library

BB pounds 632.08, pounds 594.50 Claremont Properties, pounds

596.40 Walby Grange. Round wheat straw sold to pounds 6

per bale. Char hfr 106.5p Flotterton, 103.5p

Wheathill, 99.5p Hindley. Black and Whites pounds 584.33, pounds 527 Edenbank

Farm, pounds 569.63, pounds 525.53 Wood Farm, pounds 533.80 Dinwoodie

Green, pounds 502.78 South View. Second prize pen, A Murray and Son, Craberry Brow, sold at

pounds 75 to R A Patterson. Blonde pounds 480.08 High Bow.

Tex pounds 57.80, pounds 52 and pounds 51.80 Bothel Parks, pounds

55, pounds 51 and pounds 50 Thistlebottom, pounds 54.80, pounds 54 and

pounds 51.50 Lessonhall (Dixon), pounds 54.50 High Hall, pounds 52.20,

pounds 48 and pounds 46.20 Sandhills, pounds 51.80 Jenkins Cross, pounds

51.80 Lane Head Farm, pounds 49 and pounds 48.80 Greenbank, pounds 48.20

Newlands Grange, pounds 48.20 Thwaites Farm, pounds 47.80, pounds 46.50

and pounds 46.20 Clea Hall, pounds 47.50 Anvil House, pounds 47 Midtown

Farm, pounds 46.50 and pounds 45.80 Skiddaw View, pounds 46 Manor Farm,

pounds 45.50 Fellside Farm (Coulthard), pounds 45.50 Westward Parks.

Leic pounds 57 and 95p Rosehill, pounds 49.40 and 98.8p Beacon

Rigg.

Lot 1072, William J Knox, Haddo Jaguar, 4,500gns to W G Halliday,

Paulsland, Ecclefechan, Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire.

Lim hfrs pounds 495 Streethead, pounds 450 Braehead, pounds 445,

pounds 430, pounds 425 Blackrigg, pounds 442, pounds 425 Jockstown,

pounds 438, pounds 435, pounds 402, pounds 398 Englishtown, pounds 408

Ratlingate.

Heifers -

The sale was topped at pounds 41.50 by a pen of Cheviot crosses

from Carrick.

Tex X lambs sold to pounds 38.80 from Girsonfield and Suff X to

pounds 38 from Hepple Whitefield.

The ram is by Cornerstone Isaac which was loaned from the Watchknow

flock of Jim Warnock, of Sandilands, Lanark, which also sired a tup that

sold for 22,000gns in Lanark in August.

Hereford hfrs pounds 300 Nettling Flatts.

Gelb 94.5 and 93.5 Howgill Farm.

Blonde 103.5 Stanger Hill.

Swaledale pounds 19.50 Glebe Farm, pounds 18.50 College Farm,

pounds 17.80 Little Swinburne, pounds 17 Fair Hill, pounds 16.50

Penpeugh, pounds 16 Stone Stile.

A ram lamb from Douganhill Farms had earlier broke the Carlisle

centre record for a sheep at 48,000gns.

Suff X (ex Scotch half-bred):

Char X: pounds 49.80 High Wiserley, pounds 49.40 Houselope Grange,

pounds 44 Hargill Farm; 104.5p Newlands Hall, 104.3p Brotherlee, 103.9p

Newlands Hall.

Top, averages: Steers LW 104.50 (104.50) MW 108.50 (99.50) HW

113.50 (97.76) Heifers MW 134.50 (97) HW 131.50 (94.90) Young bulls LW

65.50 (65.50) MW 115.50 (93.71) HW 116.50 (100.57)

Shearling rams: Loosebeare, 8, pounds 16,599.18; Stainton, 6,

pounds 1,303.75; Seneirl, 7, pounds 1,065; Haltcliffe, 4, pounds 958.13;

Barrowby, 858.38; Douganhill, 8, pounds 741.56; Lochar, 8, pounds

715.31; Thistlewood, 8, pounds 711.38; Alwent, 5, pounds 703.50;

Heyworth, 6, pounds 700; North Quarter, 7, pounds 670.50; Goldies, 8,

pounds 653.63; Lockerbie, 7, pounds 580.50; Parkholme, 7, pounds 541.50;

Lochwood, 6, pounds 502.25.

pounds 81 Quarry House (x3), pounds 80 The Steel, Burn Bank,

Brownleazes, Harsondale, pounds 79 Blackburn, pounds 78 Yatesfield,

Carry House (x2), Quarry House, pounds 77 The Steel (x2), Broomhope,

Redesmouth.

Blonde pounds 696.33 Old Hall Farm. Blonde X hfr 106.5p Hindley. However there were still a

large portion of leaner and plainer lambs which pulled the average down

to 99.4p. BB X pounds 685 Thrunton

Lowfield (20m); pounds 680 and pounds 610 (20m) Blossom Hill.

The mart had forward 4,629 store lambs of all classes.

BB 113.5 The Hill Farm, 103.5 Rose Farm, 101.5 Brinns Farm, 100.5

Bog Hall, 100.5 Kirkland Hall.

At the mart’s fortnightly sale of store and beef breeding

cattle, there were 389 store cattle and 35 beef breeding cattle forward.

Late rates were easily upheld to a top of pounds 790 for a Lim X hfr

with bull calf from Standen Hey.

pounds 495 Tone Hall (11m); pounds 480 Norwood; pounds 470 Paxton

Dene and Colwell Demesne;

Store lambs: Suff Xs pounds 41.20 D’Mainholm, pounds 40.20

Glenkiln, pounds 39.20 Glendhu, pounds 39 Hermitage.

Blonde pounds 710.68 Little Galla Farm.

B/face pounds 45 and 100p Thornley Hall, pounds 40 and 85.1p

Stewartshield.

3 J Charlton Hillend pounds 71.

Angus bks (green CID) pounds 455 Arthuret.

G/face pounds 44.20 and pounds 41.20 Woodhall.

Lot 1074, William J Knox, Haddo Judge, 6,000gns to T A Jackson,

Boat Farm, Thankerton, Biggar, Lanakrshire; A Barr, Parkhouse,

Quothquan, Biggar, Lanarkshire.

Char X pounds 580 Thrunton Lowfield (18m)

Leading prices: Blackface pounds 74 Greenleighton, pounds 71

Yatesfield, pounds 70 Townfoot, Duns Houses, Penpeugh, Redesmouth,

pounds 69 Duns House, pounds 68 Penpeugh, pounds 66 Yatesfield, pounds

66 The Brigg, pounds 65 Duns Houses, pounds 65 Newbiggin, pounds 64 and

pounds 62 Greenleighton, pounds 60 Yatesfield, Townfoot, Cranberry Brow,

Pottsdurtrees, Greenleighton, Townshield.

Leading bullock prices (all Xs): Lim pounds 786.63, pounds 773.85,

pounds 747.18, pounds 740.18, pounds 736.38, pounds 710.60 Old Hall

Farm, pounds 754.08 Wavercroft Farm, pounds 719.33 Greenhills, pounds

700.15 Sceughmire, pounds 697 Northdyke Farm. Swaledale pounds 22.20

Willimoteswick Farm, pounds 19.70, pounds 16.90 Hargill House, pounds

17.30 Broadmea. Sim pounds 620.13 Claremont Properties. Third prize pen, J Browell Sons,

Quarry House, sold at pounds 82 to A and D Proctor, Swarland Old Hall.

The weekly prime stock sale presented 142 prime cattle, 59 prime

bulls, 3,006 lambs and 199 cast ewes and rams.

Swaledale pounds 70 Low Leam (WT), pounds 56 Garretshields, pounds

49 Townfoot, pounds 46 Greenleighton,

Suffolk, pounds 46 Greenways, pounds 42.80 West Underheath.

Buyers were out in force with demand excellent for the first sale.

Parth 95.5 Thwaites Farm.

BB 116.5 (x2) Stanger Hill.

Top prices: Mule ewe lambs pounds 83 Homilton, pounds 82 Broomhope

and Quarry House.

Steers on Blue:

Lot 1177, J D Houghton, Isherwood Farm, Affetside, Bury,

Lancashire, Tophill Jewel, 20,000gns to T MacTaggart, Rascarrel Farm,

Auchencairn, Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire; Boden and Davies Ltd,

Mellor Hall Farm, Mellor, Nr Stockport, Cheshire; Idris Morris, Y

Fachell, Llanddeiniolen, Caernarfon.

BB pounds 632.08, pounds 594.50 Claremont Properties, pounds 596.40

Walby Grange.

The top price was 134.5p per kg paid for a Lim X hfr shown by

Messrs Graham, Miller Hill, Gilsland and bought by S Stoddart, Wigton.

This also made the top price per head of pounds 723.25. Blonde, pounds 696.33 Old

Hall Farm. BB bks

(green CID) pounds 580 Loughrigg, pounds 555 Galemire House.

115.5p Latterford, 113.3p Mickley Moor, 109.1p Flotterton, 108.4p

Beaumont House, 104.4p Flotterton, 102.2p Latterford, 101.6p Rusheylaw.

Lambs: Fewer lambs forward on the week. Blackface pounds 33

Carrick, pounds 32 Burdonside, pounds 30.80 Rookland, pounds 30 Carrick,

pounds 29.80 and pounds 29.20 Harsondale, pounds 28.50 Rookland, pounds

28 West End Town, pounds 27.40 Hopefoot, pounds 26.80 Townfoot.

Copyright 2003 Gale, Cengage Learning. A poorer show of mainly grass fed prime

cattle met a more hesitant demand.

B/face pounds 46 The Steel, pounds 41.80 Hotbank, pounds 38.20

Broomhope, pounds 38 Lee Hall, pounds 37.50 Beamwham and Penpeugh.

The mart forward 35 cattle, 4,830 prime lambs and 583 cast ewes and

rams.

Suffolk pounds 33 Inveresk Reasearch. Rams to pounds 24 averaging

pounds 23.03.

BB X pounds 398 Theakston Grange; pounds 388 Bishopton. MRI pounds 586.23

Dinwoodie Green. B/face, pounds 17.80 Willimoteswick Farm.

Lambs over 35kg – Tex pounds 48.20 Greta Farm, pounds 46.80 High

Parkwall, pounds 45.50 East Newhouses, pounds 44.50 Hetherick, pounds

43.50 Village Farm, pounds 43.50 Dirt Pitt.

123.7p Hedley Park, 118.8p Blackburn, 118.4p Cooper House, 117.8p

Hallington New House, 117.2p Airey Hill, 116.3p Hedley Park.

At the sale of Hill Cheviots and B/faces, 1,001 Cheviots and 1,210

B/faces were forward.

Leading lamb prices (all Xs): Beltex pounds 68 Thirlwall Castle,

pounds 61.20 Newbiggin Hall.

Top prices: N C Cheviot pounds 41.50 Carrick; Tex X pounds 38.80

Girsonfield, pounds 36 The Haining, pounds 34.80 Burdonside, pounds

34.50 Low Carriteth, Suff X pounds 38 Hepple Whitefield, pounds 35.80

Burdonside.

1 J D Longlands Tonehall pounds 84;

Lot 230, Gordon Gray, 4,000gns to K A and R Campbell, as lot 228.

Suff X pounds 56.50 Satley Farm, pounds 53.20 Thornley Hall,

Lim bks (blue CID) pounds 628 Streethead, pounds 600 The Haven,

pounds 595 Lodge Hill, pounds 590, pounds 580 Galemire, pounds 560

Ryehills (Hogg), pounds 548, pounds 540 The Flex, pounds 535 How

Cottage.

The mart sold 583 cast ewes and rams.

Top of pounds 33.50 for a pen of pounds 33.50 for a pen of 120 from

Tweedshaws, followed at pounds 31.20 Langholm Farms, pounds 30 Dunblane.

Ewe lambs to pounds 32 Stobohope.

Other Prizes:

Prize List:

The syndicate, who will use the ram by AI, are Allen Cullen, for

his Craighead flock, at Carluke, Lanark, Doug Nesbitt and sons Steven

and David for their Alwent flock at Winston, Darlington, and Jim Black for his Corrie flock at Lockerbie.

Tex X pounds 40 Breckon Hill, pounds 39 Hedley Park, pounds 38 Hot

Bank, pounds 36.80 Morrow Edge, pounds 34 Hedley Park and Huntershield,

pounds 33 Currock Hill.

Beltex pounds 51 and 115.90p Morrow Edge, pounds 46.80 and 117p

Middle Dukesfield.

Sim 94.5 Fern House.

At 20,000gns was Tophill Jewel bred by J D Houghton, of Isherwood

Farm, Affetside, Bury, Lancashire, which sold to T MacTaggart, Rascarrel

Farm, Auchencairn, Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire; Boden

Davies Ltd, Mellor Hall Farm, Mellor, near Stockport, Cheshire; Idris

Morris, Y Fachell, Llanddeiniolen, Caernarfon.

Lim X pounds 745 and pounds 720 Hedley West (19/21m); pounds 672,

pounds 670, pounds 662 and pounds 655 Homilton (18m); pounds 635 Colwell

Demesne (20m);

Top, averages LW 97.50 (97.50) SW 103.09 (101.26) MW 117.73 (99.02)

HW 110.21 (98.35) OW 107.04 (101.85)

Blonde pounds 480.08 High Bow.

Mule pounds 35.50 Hareshaw, pounds 35 Harsondale, pounds 32

Carrick, 330 Benshaw Moor, pounds 29.50 Hepple Whitefield, pounds 28.80

Harsondale.

Sim bks (blue CID) pounds 625 Galemire House, pounds 495 Moss Side.

Lot 227, Gordon Gray, 2,000gns to P E Starkey, Elgendon Dale Road,

Elloughton, Brough, East Yorkshire.

G/face pounds 36.80 Woodside, pounds 36 Over Whitlaw, pounds 35.80

High Burnfoot and Glentoo, pounds 35.50 Hole of Lyne.

Tupping lambs maintained the strong rates of the first sale with

running lambs a good level trade throughout.

Charollais pounds 45.80 and pounds 44.20 High Hall, pounds 44.20

Fellside (Pears), pounds 42.80 Riggwood.

Suffolk X (ex Mule):

Cheviot Mule pounds 36.80 Easter Alemoor.

Holst X bks (blue CID) pounds 410, pounds 385 Sarkside.

Char bks (blue CID) pounds 575 How Cottage.

B/face: pounds 28.20 Dunns Houses, pounds 28 Penpeugh, pounds 27.50

Hot Bank, pounds 25 and pounds 22.20 Toft House, pounds 22 Dunns Houses,

pounds 21.20 Lee Hall.

Angus bks (blue CID) pounds 600 Bush on Lyne, pounds 540 Arthuret

and Galemire House, pounds 525 Arthuret, pounds 468 Spadeadam.

Blonde X pounds 600 and pounds 595 Springwood (17m).

GF pounds 24.50 Lessonhall (Dixon).

Prime sheep – Lambs: A good quality entry of lambs were forward.

Following the recent fall in price all classes were cheaper, although a

satisfactory trade resulted.

Chev X pounds 42.80 Dunshiel, pounds 38 Townshield, Grindon Hill

and Three Farms.

The top price was pounds 57.80 for a pen of Texel cross lambs shown

by G N and D M Bowe, Bothel Parks and bought by R J Harrison, butcher,

Wigton.

Before the sale the show of mule ewe lambs, sponsored by Robson

Cowan, Scots Gap, was judged by Harry Birnie, East Gowkhill Farm,

Maud, Peterhead, who made the awards as follows:

pounds 76, Carry House, Whiteside, Low Leam (x2), pounds 75

Cranberry Brow, Rusheylaw (x2), The Steel, Low Leam, (x2), pounds 74

Carry House, The Steel, Burnbank, Broomhope, Brownleazes, Quarry house,

(x2), West Nubbuck, Low Leam.

Lim pounds 592 Wood Farm.

Before the sale, judge Charles Thornally awarded the Edward Jackson Silver Challenge Cup to Messrs J D Longlands, Tonehall, with an

outstanding pen of Suff X mule ewe lambs which made pounds 84.

Char X pounds 600 (x2) Rusheylaw; pounds 580 Coldwell;

pounds 575 Little Harle; pounds 572 Norwood; pounds 562 East Newham

and Linbriggs; pounds 550 and pounds 545 East Newham; pounds 530 Colwell

Demesne;

Bullocks made a top price of 113.25p per kg for a BB shown by D G

and B E Hurst, The Hill Farm, Silloth and bought by Forth Meat Supplies,

Galashiels.

Mule pounds 59.50 Watch Currock, pounds 48.20 Rusheylaw, pounds

46.80 Kellah, pounds 46 and pounds 45.60 Rusheylaw, pounds 45.30

Broomhope, pounds 44.80 Beacon Rigg.

pounds 570 and pounds 560 Rusheylaw; pounds 550 Little Harle;

pounds 542 and pounds 540 Tone Hall (11m); pounds 525 Reenes; pounds 518

and pounds 505 Coldwell.

Parth; 112.5 and 104.5 Marina House.

Leading bull prices (all Xs):

pounds 630 Homilton (18m) and Springwood (17m); pounds 602

Springwood (17m); pounds 580, pounds 545 and pounds 535 Old Ravensworth

(18m); pounds 530 Thrunton Lowfield (15m); pounds 515 South Farm

Kirkheaton (14m).

Store Lambs:

Suff X mule pounds 73, pounds 70 Hollin Hill; Suff X pounds 66 and

pounds 62 East Trewick; Feeding ewes (123).

A good show of both tupping and running lambs were on offer to a

full ring of buyers.

North Country Cheviots sold to pounds 39.80 Gillesbie Farms,

closely followed at pounds 39 Meiklewhitriggs and pounds 38 Effgill.

Char 104.5 and 103.5 Rose Farm, 103.5 Brinns Farm, 102.5 Kirkland

Hall.

Suffolk X pounds 56.50 Satley Farm, pounds 53.20 Thornley Hall,

pounds 51.80 Parsons Byres, pounds 50 Satley Farm, pounds 49.80 Blakeley

Hill Farm, pounds 49.60 High Wiserley, pounds 49.50 Hargill Farm, pounds

49 Parsons Byres and Lunns House, pounds 48.50 Stockley Burn Farm,

pounds 47.40 and pounds 47.20 Nettlesworth West Ho, pounds 47.20 Baal

Hill, Rosehill and West Shield, pounds 47 Friarside.

Trade for quality lambs were in demand with secondary sorts harder

to sell.

Lot 758, Douganhill Farms, Orchardtown Mains, Palnackie, Castle

Douglas, Douganhill Jeronimo, 48,000gns to M M A Ridley,

Haltcliffe, Hesket-new-Market, Wigton, Cumbria.

Tex X pounds 52.20 Satley Farm, pounds 52 Grange Farm,

There was an entry of 2,047 Blackface and Swaledale ewe lambs.

Mule: pounds 40 Low House Farm, pounds 38 Ambling Gate, pounds 36

Thornley Park; 95.2p Low House Farm, 94.7p Thornley Park, 90.5p Ambling

Gate.

The mart had forward 2,155 store lambs.

Lim 134.5, 131.5 and 129.5 Miller Hill; 115.5 and 103.5 Bothel

Parks, 114.5 and 104.5 Lessonhall (Dixon), 102.5 Tarnrigg Moor.

Angus X hfr with calf pounds 500 Limekilns.

Steers on Red:

Lim 112.5 New Godderthwaite, 111.5, 108.5 and 105.5 Old Hall, 109.5

Moorend, 108.5 Grassknop, 108.5 and 100.5 Cumrew Farm, 106.5, 105.5 and

104.5 Wall House, 106.5 Swallow Dene, 106.5, 105.5 and 103.5 Brinns

Farm, 105.5 Oulton House, 105.5 Kirkland Guards, 104.5 Bog Hall, 104.5

Croft Farm (Rickerby), 104.5 The Hill Farm, 104.5 Miller Hill, 104.5 Low

Blaithwaite, 103.5 Midtown Farm (Armstrong), 103.5 Low Bank End Farm,

103.5 Wavercroft, 103.5 Wreay Hall Farm, 102.5 Fingland, 102.5 Fern

House, 101.5 Bothel Parks, 100.5 Bromfield Hall, 100.5 Rose Farm, 100.5

West End Farm.

Ewes – Swaledale pounds 21.20 Dirt Pitt, pounds 17.80 Village Farm.

Swaledale Rams, pounds 24 Lane Head, pounds 24 Hield House.

The top price per head for a bullock was pounds 760.72 for a

Limousin shown by A D and A Richardson, Low Bank End Farm, Appleby.

Top price per kilo was 143ppk for a pen of Tex X lambs from Messrs

Jenkinson of Clifton Moor Farm, bought by Steven Stoddart.

Lot 1070, William J Knox, Mid Haddo, Fyvie, Turriff, Aberdeenshire,

Haddo Jolt, 10,000gns to J and W Mellin, Hull House, Hellifield,

Skipton, North Yorkshire (champion).

Top price per kilo was 117.73p for a pen of Tex X lambs shown by J

J Harker and Sons, Lane Head Farm, Boltongate, Wigton and bought by S

Stoddart for D Nattrass, butcher, The Market, Carlisle

Lleyn pounds 44.20 Norman Farm.

pounds 465 and pounds 462 Little Harle; pounds 452, pounds 445 and

pounds 442 (x2) Tone Hall (10/11m); pounds 440 Snitter and Teakston

Grange.

pounds 51.30 Baal Hill; 110p 109.6p High Hedley Hope, 108.5p

106.8p Stockley Burn, 105.7p Low Wiserley.

Charollais, pounds 47 Newton Lodge, pounds 46.20 High Park Wall,

pounds 42.80 Wool House.

South Devon hfrs pounds 310 Nettling Flatt.

Top price for mule wether lambs is pounds 35.50 for a pen from

Hareshaw.

Charollais X pounds 38 Close.

1 M Davy Warton pounds 66;

B/face, pounds 41.80 Reathwaite Farm, pounds 41.80 The Faulds.

Tex pounds 37.20 Scotby Ghyll Farm, pounds 35.80 Parkhead, pounds

34.80 Bolton Wood House, pounds 33.20 Gift Hall Farm, pounds 33

Newbiggin Hall.

Cattle: BB 108.5p Black Heddon. B/face: pounds 45 and 100p Thornley Hall, pounds 40 and 85.1p

Stewartshield.

BDM: pounds 27 Aiglegill

Hexham Northern Marts held their prize show and sale of 3,957

top mule ewe lambs on behalf of The North of England Mule Sheep

Association.

Lot 782, G H and C M Wilkinson, Arkleby House, Arkleby, Aspatria,

Arkle Jaguar, 26,000gns to J Cullen, Craighead Farm, Kilncadzow,

Carluke, Lanarkshire; Firm of R Black, Craighouse, Corrie, Lockerbie,

Dumfriesshire; T Nesbitt Son, Alwent Hall, Winston, Darlington,

County Durham.

105.4p West Shield, 103.8p High Toft Hill, 103.6p Parsons Byre,

103.3p High Wiserely, Thornley Hall, Woodlands Place, 103.2p Stockley

Burn, 103.1p Hargill Farm, 103p Nettlesworth West Ho, 102.7p East Park

Farm and Satley Farm, 102.6p West Shield, Rosehill, Baal Hill and

Nettlesworth West Ho, 102.4p Wales Moor Farm.

A large show of prime sheep saw prices not as good as previous

weeks, along with the national trend.

Suff X pounds 43 Whitehall (DB), pounds 40.20 Mickley Moor, pounds

40 Todburn, pounds 30.50 East Uppertown.

95p Hotbank, 93.9p the Steel, 91.5p Beamwham, 91p Broomhope, 89.3p

Penpeugh, 89 Dunshiel.

Suff X pounds 54.80 Brokenheugh, pounds 52.80 Mickley Moor, pounds

52.50 Black Heddon, pounds 51.80 Thockrington Farm, pounds 51 Errington

Red House and Whitechapel, pounds 50.80 Dewlaw.

COPYRIGHT 2003 MGN Ltd.

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

95.2p Low House Farm, 94.7p Thornley Park, 90.5p Ambling Gate,

86.3p Stewartshields.

From William Knox’s Haddo flock at Fyvie, Turriff,

Aberdeenshire, Haddo Jolt, sold to J and W Mellin, Hull House,

Hellifield, Skipton, North Yorkshire.

Lot 76, Douganhill Farms, Douganhill, 1,800gns to R and J

Mullholland, Midtown Farm, Great Orton, Carlisle, Cumbria (reserve

champion).

101.9p Dunshiel, 97.4p Townshiel, 95p Grindon Hill.

B/W 85.5 Wellington Farm, 85.5 Priory Farm, 84.5 Prospect Farm.

Lot 419, P K Woof, Storth End Farm, Stainton, Kendal, Cumbria,

Stainton Instructor, 6,000gns to G E Hunter, Beck Houses, Greyrigg,

Kendal, Cumbria.

Hill Chev X pounds 30, pounds 29.80 Bellshiel. Char pounds 680.23 Old Hall Farm.

Lot 977, P Richardson, Sandhills Farm, Bassenthwaite, Keswick,

Cumbria, Skiddaw Justice, 9,000gns to Karen Wight, Rowen Green, Camps

Road, Crawford, Biggar, Lanarkshire; G A Gibson and Co, Cowgrove Farm,

Galston, Ayrshire.

Leading hfr prices (all Xs): BB pounds 623.10 Skelcies Hall.

45.6kg-52kg to 100p averaging 98ppk; 52kg to 98p averaging 95ppk.

Ewes to pounds 21.20 averaging pounds 15.31. Lim

pounds 506.80 Baileytown, pounds 490.10 Randalholme, pounds 472.70

Mirkbooths, pounds 458.45 Longhurst. Blonde X

pounds 615 East Newham; pounds 440 Theakston Grange.

The drought and recent fall in the finished market meant buyers

proved cautious.

Hill Cheviot pounds 60 Wavercroft Farm, pounds 49.40, pounds 49.10,

pounds 47 Bog Hall, pounds 49 Reddings.

A small but quality entry of ewe lambs met a strong enquiry

throughout.

Feeding ewes were again good to sell to a top of pounds 34 for

Texels from Winshield, who also sold Swaledales at pounds 18, G/faces to

pounds 32.50, Lynnshield, and B/faces pounds 14.50 Fenwick.

Mule pounds 36 Thockrington, pounds 34 Wall Town Farm, pounds 33.50

Morrow Edge, pounds 33 West Hayden, the Birks, Little Swinburne, Morrow

Edge, pounds 31.80 Glebe Farm, pounds 31.50 Dunns Houses.

The shearling ram from Andrew and Mark Quick, of Crediton, Devon,

was bought by a syndicate of three Scottish pedigree breeders, John

Forsyth, for his Glenside flock, of Maybole, Ayrshire, Colin Mair,

Muiresk flock, of Turriff, Aberdeenshire, and Jimmy Douglas, Cairness

flock, of Fraserburgh.

Hereford, pounds 545.75 Mirkbooths.

Blonde 101.5 Sandwath Farm.

Sim hfrs pounds 470, pounds 458 Chapeltown, pounds 420, pounds 360

Arthuret.

Other princiapl prices -

Top of pounds 44.80 for Suff Xs from Lynnshield; Tex Xs pounds 44

Enthorn; BDM X pounds 43.50 Ewesbank; Charollais X pounds 39 Ewesbank;

G/face pounds 37.20 Bailey Mill; Cheviot mule pounds 38.50 Rushend;

Lleyns pounds 34 Over Whitlaw; Swale pounds 21.50 Winshield. Tup lambs

to pounds 33 Glenkiln.

Leading bullock prices (all Xs): Lim pounds 786.63, pounds 773.85,

pounds 747.18, pounds 740.18, pounds 736.38, pounds 710.60 Old Hall

Farm, pounds 754.08 Wavercroft Farm, pounds 719.33 Greenhills, pounds

700.15 Sceughmire, pounds 697 Northdyke Farm.

Mule, pounds 42 High Cross, pounds 42 Step Ends, pounds 41.20 East

Underheath.

Greyface pounds 49.40 Bygate, pounds 45.70, pounds 43 Glenzierfoot,

pounds 44.70 Bog Hall, pounds 44 Parkgate Hall, pounds 43.90 Bog Hall,

pounds 43.70, pounds 43.10 Claremont Properties.

Leading prices -

109.6p Stone Hall, 106.2p Halton Red House, 105.6p Loadman, 104.9p

Fell Lane, 104.7p Black Heddon, 104.3p Cowbyres.

Tex X pounds 37 Townfoot, Slaley.

Champion pen R Carr, Homilton, sold at pounds 83 to J Bell, East

Wingates. All rights reserved.

Lot 1206, Andrew Dunbar, Kerse, Johnstonbridge, Lockerbie, Kerse

Jonah, 4,000gns to P Richardson, Sandhills, Bassenthwaite, Keswick,

Cumbria.

Char X pounds 730 Hedley West; pounds 680 and pounds 670 Thrunton

Lowfield; pounds 625 Peppermoor.

Black Whites pounds 584.33, pounds 527 Edenbank Farm, pounds

569.63, pounds 525.53 Wood Farm, pounds 533.80 Dinwoodie Green, pounds

502.78 South View.

Char X pounds 51 Mickley Moor, pounds 50.80 Laterford, pounds 49.80

Rusheylaw, pounds 47 Latteford and Flotterton, pounds 4660 Beaumont

House, pounds 45.80 Flotterton.

pounds 51.80 Parsons Byres; 105.4p West Shield, 103.8p High Toft

Hill, 103.6p Parsons Byre.

The sale average for Cheviots was up pounds 4.02 on the year.

Simm pounds 620.13 Claremont Properties.

Lot 1114, R and M Struthers, Collielaw Farm, Carluke, Lanark,

Collielaw Jumbo, 5,000gns to R and J Osborne, Castlehill, Durisdeer,

Thornhill, Dumfries; J and C Hastings, Rosehill, Holywood, Dumfries.

. Charolais pounds 680.23 Old

Hall Farm.

Suff pounds 55 Lessonhall (Dixon), pounds 51 Manor Farm, pounds

49.20 Clea Hall, pounds 48.50 Bolton Cottage Farm, pounds 47.20 High

Hall, pounds 46.80 Lane Head Farm, pounds 45.80 Westward Parks.

Blonde 98.5 Sandwath Farm, 97.5 Moorend.

2 A J and H Gordon, Old Deanham pounds 68.

Lot 922, John Forsyth, Lochlands Farm, Maybole, Ayrshire, Glenside

Junior, 11,000gns to JD Houghton, Isherwood Farm, Affetside, Bury,

Lancs.

Top, averages: Steers Heavy 97.5p, 92.6p Heifers Medium 106.5p,

94.5p Heavy 108.5p, 94.4p

Leading flock averages -

The sale – the biggest two-day sale of Texels in England, Scotland

and Wales with more than 1,200 rams and females sold – was a great show

for the Solway and Tyne Texel Breeders Club.

Leic pounds 31.50 Hot Bank.

Centre records were smashed when a pedigree Texel ram sold for

120,000gns – 2,000gns short of the world record for a sheep.

B/W88.5 Dockray Farm.

Lot 228, Gordon Gray, Lindean, Selkirk, Ettrick, 4,100gns to K A

and R Campbell, Drimsynie Estates, Lochgoilhead, Argyll.

The champion selected by judge Muriel Johnston, of Courthill,

Crocketford, Dumfries, sold for the joint sixth top price of the sale at

10,000gns, with three other rams selling for 11,000gns apiece.

Blackface wethers sold to a top of pounds 33 twice for pens from

Carrick and Townfield.

110p and 109.6p High Hedley Hope, 108.5p and 106.8p Stockley Burn,

105.7p Low Wiserley, 105.2p Nettlesworth West Ho, 105p Thornley

Park104.8p Low Wiserley and East Park Farm, 104.7p High Toft Hill,

104.5p Hargill Farm and Baal Hill, 104.3p and 104p Thornley Hall,

Lim X pounds 645 Cheviot; pounds 610 Paxton Dene; pounds 600 East

Newham (x2) and Garretshields;

Lim X pounds 710 China Hall; pounds 685 Thrunton Lowfield; pounds

680 China Hall; pounds 675 Colwell Demesne; pounds 670 and pounds 660

China Hall; pounds 615 Keepershield; pounds 612 High Alderheads.

MRI pounds 586.23 Dinwoodie Green.

Sim X pounds 610 West Uppertown; pounds 490 Bishopton; pounds 475

Little Harle; pounds 460 Bishopton.

Blonde d’Aquitaine hfrs pounds 290 Whitehouse.

Rams: Lot 645, E W Quick, Zeal Monachorum, Crediton, Devon,

Loosebeare Imp, 120,000gns to J P Forsyth, Glenside Farm, Maybole,

Ayrshire; J G Douglas, Woodhead of Cairness, Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire;

S G Mair and Sons, Kinnermit, Turriff, Aberdeenshire.

At the sale of B/faces, again trade was sharper with plenty of

buyers present, all classes showed a rise of pounds 4.28 on the year.

Lim 115.5 Midtown (Graham), 115.5 and 103.5 Greenhill Farm, 114.5

High Plasketlands, 109.5, 107.5 and 106.5 Clea Mire, 107.5 and 103.5

Midtown Farm (Gray); 100.5 Priory Farm.

Top price per head was pounds 68 for a pen of Beltex Xs from Messrs

Scott of Thirlwall Castle, bought by butcher Messrs Mullholland of Great

Orton.

Breeding cattle -

Averages lambs 17-34kg to 94p averaging 84.79ppk; 34.1kg-39kg to

104p averaging 97.59ppk; 39.1kg-45.6kg to 105 averaging 102.16ppk;

Lot 1178, J D Houghton, Tophill Jetstream, 11,000gns to Firm of G

Gray, Sunnycroft, Linden, Selkirk; Karen Wight, Rowen Green, Camps Road,

Crawford, Biggar, Lanarkshire; G A Gibson and Co, Cowgrove Farm,

Galston, Ayrshire.

Lim X cow with calf pounds 605 Churchstyle.

Aberdeen Angus breeding bull pounds 720 Hobbiesburn.

Top Prices

Lim X hfr with calf pounds 770 Courance Farms, pounds 720 Standen

Hey.

100.7p Broomhope, 98.6p Hareshaw, 97.9p Rusheylaw, 97.7p Lee Hall,

97.6p Fairnley, 97.4p Beacon Rigg.

Leading averages: Quarry House 191, average pounds 78.12; The Steel

205, average pounds 74.39; Carry House 150, average pounds 73.16; Low

Leam 200, average pounds 73; Rusheylaw 69, average pounds 72.97;

Yatesfield 75, average pounds 72.66.

BB hfrs pounds 318 Galemire House, pounds 310, pounds 300

Winterhope, pounds 300 Moss Side.

Suff pounds 48.20, pounds 47.40 Bygate, pounds 48 Grapes Farm,

pounds 47.90, pounds 47.70 Allerby Hall, pounds 47 Parkhead Farm, pounds

46.90 Sandwath Farm, pounds 46 (x2) High Floweryhirst, pounds 45.70 East

View, pounds 45.50 Pasture House, pounds 45.40 Shield Green, pounds

45.20 Steeley Farm, pounds 45 Street House.

Lot 879, Alastair Gault, Newtonabbey, County Antrim, Northern

Ireland, Forkins Jacko, 11,000gns to K D and D E Millar and Ptrs,

Crookholm Farm, Canonbie, Dumfriesshire; J W Irving, No 6 Stonehouse,

Gretna, Dumfriesshire.

2 G D Herdman Edlingham Demesne pounds 70;

Charollais pounds 58, pounds 44.90 Braithwaite Hall, pounds 48.10

Parkhead Farm, pounds 46.90 Kilnclose Farm, pounds 46.40 Bascodyke,

pounds 45 Glenzierfoot, pounds 44 Cracrop, pounds 44 Old Silloth Farm,

pounds 44 Fernbank.

The mart sold 827 sheep including 116 ewes and rams.

At the weekly sale of hay, straw and other fodder crops round bales

of hay sold to pounds 52 per tonne. Char pounds

619.13 Claremont Properties. Stephen Grahams

consignment of cattle averaged 125p.

Tex X pounds 41.50 Hermitage, pounds 40 Peterburn, pounds 38.50

Glentoo, pounds 38 Glenkiln, pounds 37.80 Stoneygill.

The weekly prime stock sale presented 142 prime cattle, 59 prime

bulls, 3,006 lambs and 199 cast ewes and rams.

Char pounds 619.13 Claremont Properties.

Lean mule ewes to pounds 25 Fallowfield; Scottish B/face to pounds

18.50 Redesdale.

Leading hfr prices (all Xs): BB pounds 623.10 Skelcies Hall. Lim pounds 592 Wood Farm. Mini hessian barley straw sold to pounds 39 per tonne.

The sale was topped at pounds 745 for a Lim X Steer on Blue from

Hedley West with heifers selling to pounds 645 for Lim X from Cheviot

Farm.

Angus hfrs pounds 490, pounds 410 Bush on Lyne, pounds 440, pounds

402 Galemire.

Leading prices (all Xs): Lambs to 35kg, Swaledale, pounds 28.50

Revelin, pounds 27.20 Valance Lodge, pounds 26.80 Woolpit Hills, pounds

26.80 Low Rigg.

Bulls sold to 116.5p per kg twice, both paid to Messrs Fell,

Stanger Hill, Whitrigg for BB Xs and both bought by S Stoddart for D

Nattrass, The Market, Carlisle.

Leading ewe prices (all Xs): B/faced Leicester, pounds 47.20,

pounds 43.50 Albert Cottage, pounds 38.30, pounds 34.30 Haining House.

G/face pounds 44.60 Hunley Farm, pounds 30.60 Shield Green, pounds 30.20

Newby Hall.

Lim pounds 506.80 Baileytown, pounds 490.10 Randalholme, pounds

472.70 Mirkbooths, pounds 458.45 Longhurst.

Char hfrs pounds 495 Chapeltown, pounds 430, pounds 420, pounds

415, pounds 402 Arthuret.

Another useful selection of cattle met a stronger trade on the

week.

Saler hfrs pounds 290 Dornock House.

Lot 968, Robert Mulligan, Banbridge, County Down, Northern Ireland,

Brague Jodami, 7,000gns to D P Currie and Son, Beautry House, Rathmell,

Settle, North Yorkshire.

Hopes Auction Co’s weekly sale of primestock had an entry of

216 prime cattle and 746 prime lambs including ewes.

Forward heifers, in particular, sold well above expectations.

Douganhill Jeronimo, shown by Brian MacTaggart and son David of

Orchardtown Mains, Palnackie, Castle Douglas, was bought by father and

son Matt and Craig Ridley of Haltcliffe, Hesket Newmarket, Wigton,

Cumbria.

Lamb rams – Douganhill, 5, pounds 11,109; Tophill, 4, pounds

9,581.25; Arkle, 4, pounds 7,875; Haddo, 5, pounds 4,519.20; Skiddaw, 3,

pounds 3,674.83; Glenside, 4, pounds 3,399.37; Milnbank, 5, pounds

3,087; Brague, 4, pounds 2,940; Forkins, 5, pounds 2,614.50; Baltier, 5,

pounds 2,299.50; Corrielaw, 4, pounds 1,645.88; Lochar, 4, pounds

1,640.63; Ettrick, 5, pounds 1,554; Fachell, 5, pounds 1,539.30;

Crookholm, 5, pounds 1,211.70; Muiresk, 5, pounds 1,023.75.

However in many cases lambs met a better trade than expected.

Char X pounds 49.80 High Wiserley, pounds 49.40 Houselope Grange,

pounds 44 Hargill Farm, pounds 43.80 Brotherlee, pounds 42.60 and pounds

41.80 Newlands Hall

Principal prices -

Tex X pounds 54.20 Hedley Park, pounds 53.80 Hard Riding, pounds 53

Hallington New Houses, pounds 52.60 Low Ardley, pounds 52.50 Bardon

Mill, pounds 51.80 Corneyside.

Prime cattle: Bulls continued to sell well with trade being up to

last week’s high rates. Lim hfr 106.5p,

102.5p Black Heddon, 103.5p Peacock House.

Sim X cow with calf pounds 650 Whitehouse.

104.5p Newlands Hall, 104.3p Brotherlee, 103.9p Newlands Hall,

103.8p High Wiserely, 102.9p Houselope Grange.

Belg X pounds 500 Theakston Grange.

Tex pounds 66, pounds 59.50 Thirlwall Castle, pounds 65 Clifton

Moor Farm, pounds 57, pounds 56 Haltcliffe Bridge, pounds 57

Willimoteswick Farm, pounds 56.20, pounds 55 Tiffinthwaite Farm, pounds

55 (x2) Middle Farm.

Store cattle: Lim bks (green CID) pounds 580 Loughrigg. Quality well-finished sheep met a strong demand on a top of

123.7p/kg for Tex X lambs from Hedley Park.

Sim X pounds 635 and pounds 610 West Uppertown.

Selling at 26,000gns to another syndicate of breeders was the

February-born ram lamb Arkle Jaguar shown by George Wilkinson, of

Arkleby, Aspatria, with his father Harry.

Mont 92.5 and 91.5 Isel Old Park.

Tex X pounds 52.50 Satley Farm, pounds 52 Grange Farm, pounds 51.30

Baal Hill, pounds 50.50 Nettlesworth West Farm, pounds 49 Thornley Hall,

pounds 48.20 High Hedley Hope, pounds 47.60 Friarside, pounds 47.20 High

Wiserley, pounds 47 Stockley Burn, pounds 46.80 Thornley Hall and Grange

Farm, pounds 46.20 Greenland Farm, pounds 46 Rosehill, pounds 45.60 West

Shield, pounds 45 50 South Farm Cornsay.

Store lambs were forward in larger numbers and with more distant

buyers present for the first time, all classes met a strong demand at

late rates.

Char 116.5 Whitelees, 98.5 and 95.5 Tarnrigg Moor, 97.5 and 96.5

Mechi.

Hill Cheviots to pounds 35 Castle Crawford, pounds 34.50 Eldinhope

and Rushend who sold ewe lambs at pounds 33.

Charollais pounds 37.80, pounds 28.50 North Rigg Hill, pounds 30.80

Willimoteswick Farm, pounds 27 Albert Cottage.

Mule: pounds 40 Low House Farm, pounds 38 Ambling Gate, pounds 36

Thornley Park, pounds 35.40 Stewartshield, pounds 32 Rosehill.

Lot 906, Margaret I Lyon, Milnbank, Ardmiddle, Turriff,

Aberdeenshire, Milnbank Jubilee, 10,000gns to PK Woof, Storth End Farm,

Stainton, Kendal, Cumbria; R S and J Bradley, Far Hey Farm, Cross Lane,

Salterforth, Colne, Lancs.

Leading bull prices (all Xs): Blonde, pounds 710.68 Little Galla

Farm. Hereford pounds 545.75 Mirkbooths.

The mart had forward 580 ewe lambs at their sale of Suffolk and

Texel X ewe lambs incorporating the Rothbury Sale.

Top prices: Tex X ewe lambs to pounds 80 for a pen of 3/4 bred

Texels from Hallington Newhouses.

Averages, Trend 15 aged rams, pounds 480.90 -pounds 109.54 327

shearling rams pounds 899.47 +pounds 236.01 391 lamb rams, pounds

1,025.43 +pounds 462.06 196 shearling gimmers pounds 435.29 +pounds

73.75) 18 ewe lambs pounds 257.83 -pounds 58.22

Sim X pounds 642 Thrunton Lowfield

Are some people born lucky?

. If you are not proficient in reading returns or transits on your own, an astrologer can help read these to tell your when and where your luck may be best in the coming months.

6. Look for return charts and transits that hit or highlight any of the above points. Any planet or cusp or midpoint at this degree is considered a great gift from the cosmos. Both the Part of Fortune in the natal chart and by transit can bring luck.

Any good reading starts with a birth chart drawn with an accurate birth time. There is some difference of opinion about the heart of the lion, however, so I thought I better mention it.

But remember that the best luck is the kind we make ourselves. This is not a lucky sign: Sagittarius and Pisces (the signs ruled by Jupiter) would be preferable, but no dice, I’ve got the puritanical Virgin.

3. For most charts, the condition of the ruler of the fifth house cusp will tell enough of the story. Spica landing on a cusp by progression will bring luck in the blessed house. In that way, we are all born under a lucky star (though some more than others!)

4. 7. Look at the condition of the ruler of the fifth house in the natal chart. It is conjunct the South Node and Uranus. Calculate the Part of Fortune. Look for Spica (24 degrees Libra) and see if any natal planets or house cusps are within five degrees of her. This augurs well for the chartholder.

Now, with your natal chart in front of you -

9. Look for the cusp of the fifth house.

5. Mercury is combust the sun, in Aries, and in the 12th house. Jupiter in the fifth would normally be good news, but my Jupiter is extraordinarily weak. I haven’t seen this to be the case. Too bad for me. If you don’t have your natal chart, shout out to me in the comments and I’ll email you directions to getting one free. What sign is it in? For example, my fifth house is in Virgo. What planets inhabit the fifth house? I have Uranus, Jupiter and Pluto. Those are three strikes, so I won’t go on, but the news just gets worse when I look at aspects and progressions.

1. Determine the ruler of the sign on the fifth house cusp. When someone has this degree prominent in the natal chart or highlighted in a return chart or by transit, it means “a sudden rise and a sudden fall.” Since the person is left reeling by the fall, I don’t consider this a fortunate position. Look at twenty-nine degrees of Cancer, called the Millionaire’s degree. And so on. Using my chart again, Virgo is ruled by Mercury. Some people consider twenty-nine degrees of Leo (Regulus) to be lucky. However, if one wants to look further -

2. (A degree highlighted in Oprah Winfrey and Bill Gates’s charts respectively.)

8. A year that has the degree of natal Jupiter rising portends well. Now, in my natal chart, I’m in trouble

UBS to pay $545 million over forex scandal, rivals await fate

This followed a year-long inquiry which has put the largely unregulated forex market on a tighter leash and accelerated a push to automate trading.

Instead, the Swiss bank will have to plead guilty to one count of wire fraud and pay a $203 million fine for its role in rigging interest rate benchmark Libor after its involvement in the forex debacle breached an earlier DOJ agreement.

“Credit Suisse had the same issue last year with the tax case and it didn’t have a negative impact for them in terms of net new money or operating profit so I don’t expect that many negative issues out of it for UBS,” Brun said.

Barclays has set aside $3.2 billion to cover any forex fines, and other banks also have provisions for settlements.

The DoJ has been negotiating with the banks for months over how to resolve the forex allegations. authorities, which means its penalties could be significantly higher than the other banks and top $2 billion.

“It couldn’t have been better,” Andreas Brun, an analyst with Zuercher Kantonalbank, said. authorities due to complications with its regulator in New York.

UBS’s payment is part of what is expected to be a combined multi billion-dollar settlement by five of the world’s biggest banks with U.S. The banks are seeking assurances from U.S. They pointed to Credit Suisse (CSGN.VX) which has felt only limited impact on its business since pleading guilty a year ago to helping wealthy Americans evade taxes.

The bank is now under a three year “probation” period with the DOJ. It had already paid out $1.5 billion for its role in the Libor scandal.

Regulators had fined six banks $4.3 billion last year for failing to stop traders from colluding to try to manipulate forex rates.

Individuals at Barclays could also be held accountable if there is evidence of bad conduct, New York’s banking regulator Benjamin Lawsky told Reuters on Tuesday, echoing a warning he made last week.

Britain’s Barclays is also expected to reach settlements with British and other U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). regulators they will not be barred from certain businesses if they plead guilty, several sources familiar with situation said.

UBS said the new fines would not affect its earnings. UBS has not been charged because it was the first bank to report the misconduct to the U.S. Federal Reserve had fined it $342 million for its role in the forex scandal. In Zurich, analysts were relaxed about any impact from UBS’s guilty plea. and British authorities over alleged manipulation of the $5 trillion-a-day forex market.

UBS also escaped any fine from the DOJ on the forex issues and said the DOJ would not prosecute it over investigations into its precious metals business.

The Justice Department said Attorney General Loretta Lynch would announce resolutions for other banks in connection with exchange rate manipulation at a press conference in Washington on Wednesday at 10 a.m. It would be unprecedented for the parent companies or main banking arms of so many major banks to plead guilty to criminal charges in a coordinated action.

ZURICH/NEW YORK UBS (UBSG.VX) will pay $545 million to U.S. banks to plead guilty to criminal charges in decades. Four other banks, JP Morgan (JPM.N), Citigroup (C.N), Barclays (BARC.L) and Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS.L) are expected to plead guilty to criminal charges later on Wednesday in relation to the forex investigation. Overall, UBS has paid $2.84 billion of the $13.7 billion in global fines levied over attempted manipulation of the forex market and Libor.

Zurich-based UBS said on Wednesday the U.S. authorities to end an investigation into alleged manipulation of currency rates, a settlement that will help the Swiss bank to move on after a series of trading scandals.

UBS to pay $545 million over forex scandal, rivals await fate

| Reuters

South African authorities joined the global forex investigation this week, showing how the trading scandal is continuing to unfold.

Barclays did not join the November forex settlement with British and some U.S. Transcripts of online chat rooms made public in November showed how traders shared confidential information about client orders and otherwise conspired to benefit their own transactions.

The impact of guilty pleas by the parent companies or main banking arms of major banks is uncertain. “Most of it was already priced in but something around $1 billion was expected, including the Libor fee.”

In the forex settlement, JPMorgan and Citigroup are expected to be the first major U.S. EDT (1400 GMT).

The amount was lower than expected and this contributed to a more than three percent rise in UBS shares to their highest level in six and a half years.

(Additional reporting by Joshua Franklin and Oliver Hirt in Zurich and Steve Slater in London; Writing by Carmel Crimmins; Editing by Jane Merriman)

GUILTY PLEAS

BARCLAYS

Gaming in Puerto Rico – Endless Hours of Fun and Frolic

Tourists visiting the place for some exciting times and fun elements can find these casinos the perfect getaway to spend their late hours. The gaming industry is thriving especially after they were legalized. You are sure to find the one that excites you the most at one of the popular resorts or hotels.

Puerto Ricans have always been enthusiastic about their gambling activities and it is an irreplaceable part of their daily routine. Tourists have contributed to the gaming income in large measures.

Tourists can prefer playing slots throughout the various resorts on the island. The Caribbean casino and card room industry is driven by tourists to a significant extent. Apart

from the universal favourite slot machines, the casinos also offer games such as Big Six Wheels, Pai Go Poker, Blackjack, Baccarat, Roulette and Craps among others. However, you need not be a guest or patron to participate in the gaming.

Casinos in Puerto Rico have taken all precautions to keep their place secure and the gaming is conducted strictly as per the guidelines laid down by the government. Most cruise ships that sail the Caribbean also have casinos according to reports. Some of them offer bars, live music and lots of exciting action.

Puerto Rico casinos are growing in popularity worldwide. The areas of gambling have also been expanded considerably. There is a healthy competition between the land casinos and the ones run on cruise ships.

Today, most of the hotels and resorts have casinos that are open round the clock. There are more than 5,000 slot machines and 300 table games including sports and racetrack bets that keep tourists busy during their stay here. . A new legislation has been proposed to allow an additional 20,000 terminals on the island.

In Puerto Rico there are 17 casinos and one horse track. It has certainly taken position as one of the best gambling destinations in the Caribbean. Online gambling are also offers in some jurisdictions; some with well developed racetracks. These 18 locations are available for tourists to place wagers. There are a variety of gaming activities to choose from. The 70s saw legal gambling become a popular pastime and since then the number of casinos of all shapes and sizes have proliferated in Puerto Rico. The games and the casinos here are carefully controlled by the government authorities and they can legally be operated in resort hotels only. Non-compliance attracts stiff penalties and censure. Two lotteries also operate here which include the Loteria Tradicional and the Loteria Electronica

Yorkshire lasses and their lads: sexuality, sexual customs, and gender antagonisms in Anglo-American working-class culture.

Turner, About Myself, pp. 270 (Feb 1997): 89-94.

48. 61.

By Mary Blewett

56. Jan Lambertz, “Sexual Harassment in the Nineteenth Century

English Cotton Industry,” History Workshop Journal, no. Bradford Observer, Jan. Jowitt, “Retardation,” in Employers and Labour, p.

102.

Evidence of female victimization, however, predominates in many

other studies and personal accounts. 57, and of Bertha Stott, “The

Black Sheep,” p. She held his arms tight and her big bosoms

pinned him down to the ground while others caught hold of his legs,

which were thrashing about and held them still so that others could

get his trousers down….

“Aye, let’s see what he’s gotten,” they screamed, and “Nay, he’s

nobbut half a man at that,” and “Reach us the oil can here.” They had

a long spouted oil can with ‘em and they emptied it onto his privates

and rubbed it well in with hard hands and fingers and knuckles that

were used to kneading a bowl ‘o dough and did the same thing now with

his wincing flesh. 74-5.

80. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. Nicola Reader, Ph.D. But they faced taunts from their

employers, co-workers, families, and communities that equated female

militancy with being “brazen” and “having cheek:”

aggressive behaviors that questioned their moral “decency.”

(63) In other strikes, such as in 1868 and 1876 at Titus Salt’s

alpaca mills at Saltaire in Bradford, wool combers, weavers, and

spinners (men and women, boys and girls) cooperated to protest against

wage cuts. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. For a more optimistic view based on middle-class

feminist activism in Leeds and Bradford, see Hannam, “‘In the

Comradeship of the Sexes,” pp. Bornat, “Lost Leaders,” pp. (86) The oil in the can itself was relatively clean, but

smearing lubrication for machinery on the human body is ritual

pollution. Knight, Women and Abortion,” pp. John, ed., Unequal Opportunities: Women’s Employment in

England, 1800-1918 (London, 1986) pp. 317-21.

63. Adjusting and repairing machinery was

skilled work strictly reserved for men. (34) Ittmann’s study of fertility in

mid-Victorian Bradford, Yorkshire, questioned the prevalence of

working-class sexual prudery and reticence, pointing to a late

nineteenth- century tradition of female bawdiness and open sexual

antagonism in Yorkshire. For as long as

they remained textile workers, mill lasses could expect no advances in

skills or in wage rates or any role in changing their situation through

union activity. The punishment for not

being a fully developed male in their eyes is the oil can.

Regardless of the strength of trade union patriarchy and corporate

paternalism backed by intense middle-class anxiety about working-class

sexuality, female textile workers acted to defend themselves. For example,

Grandfather Denby, the patriarchal father in Smith’s novella,

“The Mill Folk,” regards all women, including his faithful

wife, his daughters, and his daughters-in-law, as objects of his more or

less controlled lusts. (45) Indeed, courters had

free access to secluded woods and village lanes in the early nineteenth

century. James R. (1) Patrick Joyce defined class and gender relations in the

factory culture of Lancashire and of Yorkshire’s West Riding in the

late nineteenth-century as deferential, harmonious, and paternalistic ties, largely between employers and working men. They chase the lad as if they were

foxhounds and he the fox to be torn apart when caught for sport.

Galloping after him in a pack–hair tossing, skirts flying–they catch

him with anticipatory shrieks of laughter knowing what is to come. 149-53.

99. In early

nineteenth-century Yorkshire, villagers regarded “older

courters” as “man and wife. Lawson, Progress in Pudsey, pp. (28) One day

in 1915, now a full-time spinner working on yarn for Army uniforms, she

was dreaming of a different life while neglecting her machines, when a

co-worker asked her, “Nay Maggie, you were miles away. The antagonism between husband

and wife festered. Women, empowered by their sexuality,

acted as the potential or actual arbiters of power within the family.

(38)

87. (3) The same appraisal

reveals significant continuity between Yorkshire and the New England

immigrants, despite assumptions of rapid assimilation.

Yorkshire immigrant Hedley Smith (1909-1992) wrote novellas and

published short stories to preserve the West Riding dialect and homeland

customs in the early twentieth-century mill village of Greystone in the

town of North Providence, Rhode Island. W. And their judgments

denigrating the size of his penis are cutting indeed. 237-8.

49. 62-3.

Smith’s fiction both confirms Ittmann and explores the erotic

power of female physicality from the point of view of both sexes.

Yorkshire men idealized and naturalized the passionate eroticism of

their lasses. 60.

Hedley Smith sought to capture the culture of Yorkshire migrant

people in the early twentieth century, although his middle-class values

dictated many of his interests. For the quote and the general acceptance of paternalism along

the lines of Saltaire in the West Riding, D. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. Knowles is referring to Minetta

Sweet, in “The Wise Child,” More Yankee Yorkshiremen, pp. Women weavers, such as his mother

and grandmother, were not welcome in Yorkshire trade unionism. For the dismissal of “book nonsense,” see the

characters of Joth Booth, “The Conscience of Mr. have debated

whether or not female immigrants represented the “arch-conservators

of tradition.” (84) If so, these Yorkshire immigrant weavers were

actively choosing which traditions to conserve and use for their own

purposes.

46. 5, 12, 19, 26, Feb. (61) Some married women were experienced menders (burlers),

highly skilled but not highly paid needlework. 72-75.

92. 67-72.

Women’s work in the Yorkshire textile industry provides

another context in which to analyze material from Smith’s fiction

on the behaviors of Yorkshire lasses and lads who “had their

fun” prior to marriage. (62) Others like Hedley

Smith’s mother Alice Collins Smith advanced to skilled jacquard

weaving. 47-49.

72. These conflicts included sexually charged customs and

behaviors, such as the ritual humiliation of men by working women, and

new meanings for female agency in premarital sexual activities. A

young beginner was always fair game to his older mates, lads and

lasses alike, and the women were the worse of the two. In the paternalist ideology of

mid-nineteenth century Yorkshire, the working- class home and its

harmonious domestic arrangements were central to industrial order. B. Ethnic slurs mark the social

visibility of English immigrants, but these insults may also have been a

reaction to the vibrant trade unionism of English immigrants in both

cotton and woolen manufacture in southeastern New England. (14) The historiography of Yorkshire

working-class life and trade unionism provides another context within

which both fiction and observations can be interpreted. 65,

Emily Waddington, “Wedding Dress,” pp. Berthoff, British Immigrants in Industrial America,

1790-1950 (Cambridge, 1953) and Charlotte Erickson, Invisible

Immigrants: The Adaptation of English and Scottish Immigrants in

19th-Century America (Ithaca, NY, 1990 reprint of 1972 edition) and

Leaving England: Essays on British Emigration in the Nineteenth Century

(Ithaca, NY, 1994).

62. I

don’t bother wi’ t’ lads.” (29) Exhausted by the

war’s compulsory overtime, Maggie left the mill. Middle-class Yorkshire and

the trades unions widely condemned working wives. Historians of immigration to the U.S. (52) Both paternalist

employers and skilled unionists in worsted factories deliberately

perpetuated this situation by denying craft training and union activity

to women. (93) Yorkshire migrants working

in the early twentieth-century mill villages of Rhode Island found

themselves pitted against a hostile Yankee society, whose leaders ran

the state and most of its economic enterprises. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. ix-xii and chapter 6. 69-72 and Patricia Knight, “Women and Abortion in

Victorian and Edwardian England,” History Workshop Journal, no. Insisting on his rights as master of the house in

the late nineteenth-century mill village of Wilsden, Yorkshire, he

spanks his impudent teenage daughter Martha like a child on her bare

backside in front of the family. Although his work focuses on migration

during the 1990s, Cohen explicitly questions whether the nation state

was ever historically able to contain “the wider socialities”

it sought to represent.

7. (21)

Priestley defended female mill workers who went about having their

raucous “fun.” As he put it: “There was nothing sly,

nothing hypocritical, about these coarse dames and screaming lasses, who

were devoted to their own men, generally working in the same mill, and

kept on ‘courting’, though the actual courtship stage was over

early, for years and years until a baby was due, when they married. 117-36.

29. diss., University of

Essex, 1986), p. Barrett and David Roediger, “Inbetween Peoples:

Race, Nationality and the ‘New Immigrant’ Working Class,”

Journal of American Ethnic History (Spring 1997): 3-44, esp. 163-5; Jacquelyn Dowd

Hall, et. However, the general shift in

women’s jobs and expectations during the interwar years of the

twentieth century resulted in new articulations of female sexuality and

the specifics of behavior. They shrieked with laughter as they gathered round,

and one of them, a big buxom lass … Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour”

in Employers and Labour, pp. E-mail, Portia Thompson, September 26, 2000.

42. Deirdre Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour

in the West Riding Textile Industry, 1850-1914,” in Employers and

Labour, pp. 112, The Yankee Yorkshireman.

45. It would seep through the lad’s pants; he cannot return

unwashed to the mill. III (Cambridge, MA 1996), pp.

128-9.

98. Karl Ittmann’s study of declining

fertility in Bradford based on data between 1851and 1881 discussed turn

of the twentieth-century working-class knowledge of birth control and

abortion including the uses of “penny royal” and other herbal

substances and the general availability of information on sexuality

among female worsted workers, Work, Gender and Family in Victorian

England (New York, 1995), pp. (69) But women workers, whatever the degree of

their activism, could not vote for Labour Party candidates. P. (70) Gender antagonisms and marginalization could prompt

informal uses of female power.

78. Jeffrey Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of

Sexuality Since 1800 (London, 1981), pp. Also see

“jicki,” as used in southern Massachusetts and Rhode Island

textile centers in the 1930s and 1940s, Dictionary of American Regional

English, Frederic G. (89) While represented as high drama by Smith, the sunning

ritual of young lads joined other customs of initiation in late

nineteenth-century working-class culture.

100. 61.

89. (68) The participation of women

workers in the Manningham strike defied their marginalization and

subordination in trade unions, but the strike failed. 202-22, 234-5.

In choosing new lads to be sexually humiliated, women workers in

both Bradford, Yorkshire and “Briardale,” Rhode Island

challenged their marginalization in the textile factory, friendly

society, and the trade union. Yorkshire lasses and older women

used their sexuality to define their female adulthood through sexual

experimentation during courtship, to discipline male aggressiveness and

patriarchy, and to advance their status as working women.

88. 92-6, 108, 110.

76. Hedley Smith published two collections of short stories The

Yankee Yorkshireman (1970), More Yankee Yorkshiremen (1974) and one

novella, Yankee Yorkshirewomen (1978) at Harlo Press, Detroit, MI, which

published ethnic fiction. (27)

86. (49)

Priestley’s easy ascription of the “sunning” custom

to pre-industrial village customs or to “traditional female

bawdiness” ignored the long-term sexual antagonism within Yorkshire

mill life and trade unionism. Burnley, “A Day in the Mill,” Phases of Bradford

Life, p. 1997 interview.

19. James,

T. 75. Between fifteen and eighteen as they reached puberty, young women

became throstle or ring spinners, carders, and weavers. Yorkshire Factory Times, February 14, December 19, 1890.

Working-class Yorkshire immigrants both in Hedley Smith’s

Briardale stories and as labor activists in North Providence mill

villages regarded themselves as culturally distinct from and vastly

superior to American values and New England mill practices. 171-86.

40. (5) Smith, a naturalized American

citizen, lived and worked in a bi-cultural society, but his fiction

focused on the stubborn resilience of homeland culture. 72-5.

33. Also see, Weeks, Sex, Politics and

Society, pp. King,” p. (18) In Hedley

Smith’s unpublished novella, “The Mill Folk,” Martha

Denby bragged to her niece that as a mill lass she had also controlled

access to her body. 11.

30. (66) As former worsted workers, the

striking men and women weavers possessed special skills for producing

silk velvets and expected better wages, not the drastic cuts that

precipitated the strike. 60.

Studies of English working women, working-class leisure, the family

and its declining fertility, of motherhood and marriage, of divorce,

abuse, crime, and violence, of prostitution and purity movements, of

industrial paternalism and trade unionism offer little specific evidence

on female sexuality as agency. 9-10, 29.

47. In the course of an hour or two,

however, they seem to have so thoroughly possessed themselves of every

detail respecting you which could possibly interest them, that they

grow somewhat less attentive to your movements, and you recover a

portion of your natural ease. 3, 2005.

Lowell, MA 01854

85. Newbury, Picking Up the Threads, pp. 203, 209.

The history of sexuality has been primarily interpreted in a

middle-class context, often embedded in the private world of family

life. 60-61.

The symbolism of the sunning ritual as reconstructed in

Smith’s “The Mill Folk” is richly sexual and deeply

abusive. Ittmann, Gender, Work and Family, p. Historians find evidence on migrant working-

class female sexual agency elusive, for example, Christine Harzig,

“The Role of German Women in the German-American Working-Class

Movement in Late Nineteenth-Century New York,” Journal of American

Ethnic History (Spring, 1989): 87-107.

41. Also, e-mail, Duncan

Smith, Sept. 152, note # 56, 230-5. 176-7, 184.

COPYRIGHT 2006 Journal of Social History

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

51. Blackburn, In and Out the Windows, pp. 214-38, esp. At

twelve she worked half time as an unskilled doffer, excited at first,

then quickly exhausted and disillusioned. 22 and Ardis Cameron,

Radicals of the Worst Sort: Laboring Women in Lawrence, Massachusetts,

1860-1912 (Urbana, IL, 1993), pp. (90) Through the ritual of sunning, they may have been

renegotiating their position with male co-workers and especially with

the weaving overlookers upon whom weavers depended to keep their looms

in repair. Indeed the women did appear to

give out the worst. Meanwhile, the

issues of state suppression of the political liberties of free speech

and assembly during the last month of the strike galvanized English

labor politicians and trade unionists to establish a genuine

working-class political party. Daniel Bender, e-mail, Sept. (7)

Smith’s uses of village gossip overheard as a lad and cultivated as

an adult encouraged him to depict episodes of female sexuality through

his fictional fantasies and his descriptions of homeland sexual customs.

67. For a fuller analysis of Yorkshire

migrants in New England and the literature of Hedley Smith, see Mary H.

Blewett, Migration Lived and Imagined (Urbana, forthcoming).

95. In addition, the general decline of

apprenticeships in late nineteenth-century English industries created a

pool of undisciplined youths, eager to earn wages in semi-skilled jobs.

(92) Women weavers certainly wished to fend off disrespect from the

cheeky boys among whom the overlookers recruited their assistants. The once familiar faces of the weavers who now dominate

the situation are transformed. James Burnley’s

sentimental 1874 novel about Chartist activity in Yorkshire, Looking for

the Dawn, also depicted casual night-time courtships of lads and lasses

in the countryside.

2. (40) In the late nineteenth century, letters to the Yorkshire

Factory Times reported an incident of an overseer disciplining one young

female spinner by throwing up her skirts and smacking her with his hand,

which her family viewed as a sexual assault. Far fewer friendly societies that included women existed in

Yorkshire than in Lancashire, but some offered protections to women

workers. 153-170.

16. Lawson, Progress in Pudsey, “Courtship and

Love-Making” and “Old Time Weddings,” pp. (2) In this essay,

examples of female agency and voice from industrial Yorkshire reveal far

greater gender conflict within this factory culture than Joyce

recognized. 4.

[a] whole crowd of women and lasses same as a pack of fox hounds in

full scent, only noisier, [went] galloping across the field, their

skirts flying and their hair tossing and their scarves streaming in

back of them…. Joanna Bornat, “Lost Leaders: Women, Trade Unionism and

the Case of the General Union of Textile Workers, 1875-1914,” in

Angela V. A

textual and contextual appraisal of ethnic fiction about Yorkshire

immigrant life in New England set in the early twentieth century can

deepen an understanding of gender and class by providing glimpses of the

elusive world of female working-class sexuality. Also see Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen,

eds., Migration, Disaporas and Transnationalism (Cheltenham, UK, 1999),

pp. Jowitt, Model

Industrial Communities in Mid-Nineteenth Century Yorkshire (Bradford,

UK, 1986).

Industrialization, especially nineteenth-century factory work,

challenged the patterns of working-class family life and the moral role

of women, which varied widely from region to region and from industry to

industry. On the racialization of Italian immigrants, Barrett and

Roediger, “Inbetween Peoples,” p. Hammerton used

dialect poetry and prose as well as newspapers and court records to

probe the nature of turn of the century marital conflicts based on male

violence.

Yorkshire lasses experimented sexually with various partners but

with a different purpose from working-class female behaviors in

Lancashire. (75) The novella also includes an account of

the sexual dismissal by his daughter- in-law Nance of the ageing

Grandfather Denby, greedily staring at her swinging breasts as she

washes herself in the kitchen. June Hannam, “‘In the Comradeship of the Sexes Lies

the Hope of Progress and Social Regeneration’: Women in the West

Riding ILP, c. According to sociologist Robin Cohen,

the “old country” for such migrants becomes a “notion

often buried deep in language, religion, custom or folklore” in

ethnic culture and literature. Sam Knowles, a weaving

overlooker, likened the experience of bedding them to cuddling so many

“razor blades.” (72) Often cast as moral hypocrites, Yankee

women were either prudish or sexually calculating, while Yorkshire

lasses embraced sexual encounters with men spontaneously, eagerly, and

unashamedly.

Yet some lasses rejected contact with “t’ lads” for

fear of entrapment by marriage into mill life. Then, when they’d had their fun, they broke and

scattered same as a flock of crows, and went galloping off across the

fields, screeching and laughing like demons …,” leaving the lad

wretched and sobbing. Once well oiled, the women rub his

genitals with hard hands and rough movements until they judge the job

well done. Burnley, “The Dance Halls,” “Out in the Streets

All Night,” Phases of Bradford Life, pp. “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” The Yankee

Yorkshireman, pp. Judy Giles suggests that “playing hard

to get” as a strategy for accommodating female sexuality with

respectability offered some English working-class women an active

measure of self-assertion and identification. My thanks to Felicity Harrison for this insight.

Department of History

60. 12-52.. King,” p. 1890-1914,” in Jane Rendall, ed., Equal or

Different: Women’s Politics, 1800-1914 (Oxford, 1987), pp. Elizabeth Roberts, A Woman’s Place: An Oral History of

Working-Class Women 1890-1940 (Oxford, 1984), p. 153-70, esp. Another letter from a woman

weaver, described the “tickling” of an overseer in a dark

corner of the weave shed, an intimacy required to get work. Cohen, Global Diasporas, pp. “Old Harriet,” who

taught the new girls, warned Maggie against the dangers of the machinery

and of the “cheeky buggers” among the mill boys. Priestley, Margin Released, p. Maggie went into domestic service, Newbury, Picking Up the

Threads, pp. 43-72 in J. Reynolds and K. (24) The courtship and marriage of Yorkshire union

leader Ben Turner followed this pattern, although as a respectable union

man his memoirs omitted any mention of pre-marital sexuality. 46-50, 55.

79. (67) Many other women raised crucial strike

funds and joined in crowd actions that led to the harassing and stoning

of members of the Board of Directors. Hedley Smith’s personal life shaped his erotic idealization of Yorkshire “lasses” and sensitized him to the social and

cultural chasms between the native-born and immigrants in Rhode Island

society. Priestley and other

autobiographical accounts confirm Hedley Smith’s depictions of the

courtship behaviors of mill lasses and lads. (17) Female subculture made

abortion an accepted part of working-class life. 216-8, 221, 228. She then boards with

another family and becomes sexually active to great village scandal.

Even worse, she lands herself an older wealthy husband and leaves

Yorkshire for Rhode Island. The

threatening power of female sexuality, exercised collectively, openly,

and dramatically, was a reminder to all that the private world of

sexuality and the workplace were deeply intertwined but not always at

the expense of women.

Despite the condemnation of working wives by the middle class and

trade unionists, older married women weavers in Yorkshire, beginning in

the 1870s, forged a direct connection between family limitation and

their subsequent return to the workforce. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

36. (31)

Hedley Smith rooted his Briardale stories in the immigrant villages

of North Providence but not inside the factories on which those

communities depended and where textile workers primarily experienced the

intersection of class, gender, and culture. In return

Yankee disdain for working-class English immigrants produced an ethnic

slur distinct to southern New England: “jick” or

“jickey.” (95) It demeaned both Yorkshire and Lancashire

immigrants in Rhode Island’s cotton and worsted textile mills as

ignorant, dialect-speaking vulgarians. Bradford Observer, August 14, 22, 24, 25, 26, 31, September 1,

2, 1882.

Women weavers were defending themselves against the condemnatory

scrutiny of strangers, such as Burnley, who characterized them to the

middle-class public. 88.

Copyright 2006, Gale Group. For example, Andrew Davies’s study based on early

twentieth- century oral history and other sources in Lancashire,

Leisure, Gender, and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and

Manchester, 1900-1939 (Buckingham, UK, 1992), ignores sexuality, while

Stephen G. 35-6.

31. 57-70.

23. As his

trousers come down and his genitals are exposed, the laughing women

gather around, evoking primal fears of castration. (58) But marginalization had consequences, intensifying gender

antagonism.

That oil can was close to hand. During early Yorkshire

industrialization, violent sexual antagonism between the growing female

factory workforce in Bradford, Yorkshire, and “attacks by men on

women operatives,” were commonplace. Despite some

largely ambivalent support for female suffrage, the ILP joined the trade

unions as another ground for the marginalization of working-class

females. (53) Thus they drove many

of the more experienced and skilled married weavers out of the mill

workforce. 20,

and Ruth Binns, “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” pp. (35)

11. When

Maggie was nine in 1910, her father, a failed tenant farmer, relocated

his family of twelve children to Bradford where they could find work. Texts carefully

positioned in Anglo- American contexts provide new perspectives on the

sexuality of working women, not as victims or objects, but as active

players in gender and class conflicts. Busfield, “Skill and the Sexual Division of Labour,”

in Employers and Labour, pp. (48)

97. For condemnation of

“wedding” out of class, see Aunt Sarah Jane Denby,

“Wedding Dress,” p. Priestley, Margin Released, p. “Of course I had my fun with the lads in my

time. 57 and Jack Reynolds, The Great

Paternalist: Titus Salt and the Growth of Nineteenth-Century Bradford

(New York, 1983), pp. Laybourn, The Centennial History of the Independent

Labour Party (Halifax, 1992), pp. In retaliation and partly for his

refusal to let her continue her schooling, Martha threatens the family

welfare by withholding her wages as a weaver. Patrick Joyce, Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the

Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980).

34. For recent work on gender and the family in immigration,

Suzanne M. In response to declining wages

and recurrent depression in the worsted industry, a generation of

working-class wives who had found the means to control fertility largely

through abortion returned to weaving. Laybourn, “The Emergence of the

Independent Labour Party in Bradford,” International Review of

Social History 20, 3 (1975): 313-46 and Keith Laybourn, “The

Manningham Mills Strike, December 1890 to April 1891,” in D. In the reminiscences of a

“Bradford Mill Girl,” Maggie Newbery, from the rural East

Riding of Yorkshire, became a scared half-time mill worker in 1913. 90-6.

25. 224-5.

In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, even well-organized

women weavers and carders who reported sexual bullying and mistreatment to their trade union officials found them to be reluctant, problematic

allies. See “English Village in Rhode Island,” Providence

Tribune, Nov. Maria Bottomley, “Women and Industrial Militancy: The

Heavy Woolen Dispute,” in Employers and Labour, pp. Bornat in “Lost Leaders,” in Unequal Opportunities,

pp. (54) Male family members pressured young women to join unions

and often paid their dues but allowed them no role in union activities.

(55) The majority of low paid, young females in the spinning and weaving

departments remained unorganized, while skilled male workers such as

wool sorters and dyers had strong craft unions. Lawrence, Smith understood that

sexual attachments were the glue that bonded society, Gordon E. Smith’s mother Alice, a skilled worsted weaver

with little formal education, had made sure her two sons were educated

in Yorkshire and suffered the mill villagers’ scorn for it. Newbury, Picking Up the Threads, pp. These sources include James Burnley, Phases of Bradford Life: A

Series of Pen and Ink Sketches (Bradford, UK, 1871) and Looking for the

Dawn: A Tale of the West Riding, (London, 1874, reprinted New York,

1986); J. Elizabeth who entered the mills at thirteen in 1915 could

observe the mill at night because her father also served as watchman and

the family occupied housing on the mill grounds, Blackburn, In and Out

Windows, pp. (99)

Having been themselves racialized as “ignorant jickeys,” they

seemed able to step outside, at least in 1912-1913, the racial heritage

of British imperialism. 15, of Emma Briggs (perhaps based on Smith’s

mother), “Uprooted,” p. (43) Female cotton weavers in Lancashire feared losing their

jobs and turned to family and kin to confront weave room overlookers,

called tacklers, who sexually abused them verbally and physically.

Tacklers, usually brawny with rough language and manners, were however

regarded in Lancashire as skilled and respectable working men who

commonly bullied weavers and chose favorites. 10, 2002.

52. The Briardale fiction starkly contrasts the passionate

heterosexual eroticism of Yorkshire lasses with desexualized Yankee

women. Judy Giles, “‘Playing Hard to Get’:

Working-Class Women, Sexuality and Respectability in Britain,

1918-1940,” Women’s History Review, I (Spring 1992): 239-55.

82. Drew, leader of the West Riding Weavers’

Association, openly opposed the working wife. 36.

Rank and file weavers initiated Bradford’s Manningham Mills

strike in 1890-91 against the advice of W. The term appears as “the Jickeys” in Smith’s

“The Wise Child,” p. 4

(Autumn 1977):62-3.

… (73) Smith’s marriage to Carmen Fowler, a Yankee

schoolteacher with kinship ties to Maine and the “second”

Mayflower, fed the cultural and personal conflicts central to the

Briardale fiction. At

eighteen, Turner began courting his wife at the same mill where he

worked. 33-4, and “The Mill Folk.” “Middle-class

Yorkshire immigrants often expressed scorn for American ways, “King

George’s Idea,” in More Yankee Yorkshiremen, pp. Smith’s portrayal of

sexual tensions within the family extended to relationships within the

workforce.

83. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, p. RI), November 28, 1974. 23-24, 1912;

Jan. Most female workers in the worsted factories would marry

and soon after drop out of the work force. (44)

Titus Salt, owner of the 1853 model paternalist village of Saltaire in

Bradford, regarded the pre-industrial village with its beer, lust, and

freedom of moors and fields as the source of riotous Chartist and

anti-factory agitation in the 1830s and 1840s. In nineteenth-century Yorkshire, young

females were systematically denied access to skills in the worsted

industry, resulting in a sexual division of labor, which relegated them

to poorly paid and unrewarding work. 7-9.

37. xxi. (77) He recalled his own public

encounters with female weavers in pre-1914 Bradford.

61. Ittmann briefly noted the ritual of sunning and female bawdy conduct as “sexual antagonism,” Work, Gender and Family, pp.

224, 232-3.

In Smith’s fictional version of sunning, he imagines

collective female action overpowering a new lad, displaying,

denigrating, handling, and dirtying his genitalia. In a 1907 case, the victim

slapped the face of the offender. 154-6.

74. See photograph between pp. Weddin is joyous,–its pleasur unstinted;

but coortin is th’ sweetest thing iver invented. Priestley, Margin Released, pp. Smith who had passed the eleven plus exams in Yorkshire was

refused admission to high school, 1997 interview.

65. Drew, leader of the

Bradford weavers’ union. “The Mill Folk,” depicts the

Yorkshire ritual of sexual humiliation reenacted by female immigrant

weavers who were challenging the foundations of emerging sexual

patriarchy in a North Providence mill village. Berthoff, have

represented nineteenth-century English immigrants to the United States as easily acculturated into American society and thus socially

“invisible.” (8) In contrast, Hedley Smith’s fictional

world of Briardale reflects an early twentieth-century cultural and

labor diaspora driven by specific late nineteenth-century economic

circumstances. Priestley, Margin Released, p. Such boisterous behavior in pre-factory mill villages occurred

only among men and boys except for women’s participation in

“Riding the Steng,” part of the Yorkshire charivari tradition,

Lawson, “Manners, Customs, Sports and Pastimes,” Progress in

Pudsey, pp. His stories also

drew upon close ties to his mother and grandmother, both weavers, and

their friends and neighbors in Yorkshire and Rhode Island. (64) A strike at the Manningham mills in 1882 that

foreshadowed the great strike in 1890-91 united female and male silk

plush weavers who opposed wage cuts and bad conditions. Typically “when young people had

fallen into sin,” their employers expected them to marry or quit.

Still, wives dependent on their husbands’ earning at Saltaire

stoutly refused to use the mills’ washing and bathing facilities as

inconvenient and an “invasion of their privacy.” (47) Strict

regulation of behaviors in both factory and dwellings, supported by

middle-class outrage at youthful activities in dance halls and outside

controlled “parks” and leisure grounds, indicated intense

anxiety about expressions of working-class sexuality. 10, 1974, possession of

author. But all this not unwholesome and perhaps

traditional female bawdiness–there was a suggestions of mythology,

ancient worship, folklore, about that queer “sunning” ritual–was far

removed from cynical whoring. 130-1.

14. They

may not have lived happily afterwards, but they saved themselves from

some unpleasant surprises.” (22) Priestley’s acculturated

observations of pre-World War I working-class female sexuality revealed

neither revulsion nor shame.

44. (78)

96. (6) His stories,

which are based both in the region around Bradford, Yorkshire and in the

exclusive ethnic enclave of fictional “Briardale” set in

Greystone and four surrounding mill villages, yield vignettes of the

historic experience of female heterosexuality among Yorkshire working-

class people. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. 37-8, 42-8. For references to shoddy meaning adulterated worsted made of

cotton and wool, “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” The Yankee

Yorkshireman pp. Sinke, Dutch Immigrant Women in the United States, 1880-1920

(Urbana, IL, 2002). In textile production, men

controlled all the machinery. All rights reserved. [F]rom now on I felt

that somehow I was stronger…. (16) Smith’s fictional

accounts are supported by historian Karl Ittmann who cited illegitimacy rates in Bradford as “fairly constant” between 1851 and 1881

averaging between 6 and 8 percent, while female-controlled networks of

sex information and abortion became the major means of family limitation

in late nineteenth-century Yorkshire. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. This

“disorderly” public behavior by ordinary working women

transforms them into demons and crows, merciless and rending. (42) Such individual acts however were very risky.

Smith’s fiction explores the controlling power of patriarchy

and resulting female rebellion as well as acquiescence. Certainly

this was the case in the Briardale fiction. 23, 30, April

12, 1913; and Rhode Island Commission for Industrial Statistics,

Twenty-Seventh Annual Report (1914), pp. On Bentley, Eric Ford, “Phyllis Bentley: Novelist of

Yorkshire Life,” Contemporary Review v. James Hammerton’s Cruelty and Companionship: Conflict in

Nineteenth-century Married Life (London, 1992) remains the best study of

English working-class marriage, see chapters 1, 2. When he tried to send her home, she

reported the incident to the office, and the overseer himself was

dismissed. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. On labor conflicts, Providence Daily Journal, Nov. But I were smart enough to know when to keep the gate shut…. Projecting his sense of humiliation, Burnley denounced

in the strongest terms what he regarded as the vicious sensuality of

mill lads and lasses at local dance halls and in the streets at night.

(50) Frightened but fascinated, Burnley was observing the courtship

customs of the lasses and their lads.

18. In “A Day at the Mill,” published in 1871, he

described his humiliation during a visit to a Bradford worsted mill.

“On first entering [the weave shed], it seems as if some accident

would be sure to befal [sic] you…. Throwing

the terrified lad down and pinning his arms–one with her ample

bosoms–and holding his legs, they can do with him as they like. I would find

myself breasting a tide of shawls, and something about my innocent

dandyism would set them screaming at me, and what I heard then, though

I was never a prudish lad, made my cheeks burn. But Smith’s unpublished novella, “The Mill

Folk” also reveals an awareness by women of their sexual powers and

their willingness to use their eroticism as agency. (71) The men of Briardale scorned the sallow skin, long jaws,

sharp noses, and skinny bodies of Yankee females. 6, 141-2, 129, see note #

168, 232-3.

73. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. These women thus sent

a message of female power to the whole working-class community: lads,

lovers, husbands, co-workers, and overseers: all of them once

“cheeky buggers.” In doing so, sexual harassment, “a form

of gender policing, a capturing of sex and sexuality in search of power

and control,” was turned on its head. Still,

her unsympathetic daughter-in-law Carmen disdained the Yorkshire

connection. (32) Classic oral histories, such as

Elizabeth Roberts’s 1984 study of Lancashire working-class

sexuality, emphasized repression and ignorance, reporting that “sex

was not fun” for working-class women. Smith explored the

themes of cultural and mutual class antagonism in his fiction. Reynolds,

“Reflections on Saltaire,” pp. Priestley’s mother,

who died after his birth in 1894, and grandparents on each side were

mill workers, “both men and women,” a “solid steady

sort.” His school teacher father “plucked my mother, my real

mother, about whom I know nothing except she was high-spirited and

witty, from the clogs and shawls ‘back o’t mill’, a free

and easy, rather raffish kind of working-class life, where in the grim

little back-to-back houses they shouted and screamed, laughed and cried,

and sent out a jug for more beer.” (20) At sixteen, Priestley

became a junior clerk with Helm and Company of Bradford, exporters of

wool tops to manufacturers on the Continent and “even as far as

Rhode Island.” He recalled avidly watching the “dressing-up,

display, showing off, pursuit and capture” during promenades of

“lads and girls” at Bradford’s summer concerts. 21, 29.

This ritual of male humiliation by working women constitutes

sexually charged “rough usage.” (83) Nonetheless, sunning was

performed within the context of a new lad being “fair game” to

his older mates, both lads and lasses. (79)

12. (59) Indeed, as Ittmann argued, “the pace of

fertility decline continued to increase in Bradford up to the First

World War.” (60) By the first decade of the twentieth century

married women represented between 10 and 15 percent of the total worsted

labor force. 15, 2003.

Female working-class sexuality as represented in Smith’s

ethnic fiction can be compared with and verified by working-class

memoirs and reportorial accounts of the social conditions in the

Yorkshire worsted industry. His wife’s refusal to leave her maternal home in

North Scituate, RI, and her threats to divorce him, prevented Smith from

getting better-paid, more interesting jobs in livelier locations. 74 in The Yankee Yorkshireman. 78-9, More Yankee Yorkshiremen, and as cited below in

the typescript, “The Mill Folk.” For calculating and prudish

Yankee women, see “The Lion and The Eagle,” typescript, pp.

92-94, 109-10, 114.

27. 17-18. Let’s see what he’s got; he’s “nobbut” half a man. 230-3. (96)

Historians James Barrett and David Roediger probe the contexts of ethnic

slurs and racialization and suggest that cultural insults [as in the

case of jickey] sometimes had “far more to do with class than with

ethnic identity.” (97) Briardale’s mill workers returned

Yankee scorn in rich measure by their contempt for American beer and

“shoddy” worsted cloth. (9) Forcibly dispersed by economic crisis in the worsted

industry, Yorkshire migrants in Hedley Smith’s

“Briardale” stories did not seek assimilation or a new life.

Rather, they maintained close connections with their culture in the West

Riding and returned when possible. Arguing that the family became “a

contested ground” as a result of late nineteenth- century economic

crisis, Ittmann cited incidents of working-class men engaged in nude

foot-racing and swimming that attracted groups of female mill workers,

scandalizing the middle class. Michael J. An overlooker is a foreman. See Ittmann, Work, Gender, and Family, pp. Joanna Bornat, “‘What About That Lass of Yours Being

in the Union?’: Textile Workers and Their Union in Yorkshire,

1888-1922,” in Leonore Davidoff and Belinda Westover, eds., Our

Work, Our Lives, Our Words (Totowa, NJ, 1986), pp. 46-50 and on middle-class views of female

working-class sexuality, Jane Lewis, Women in England, 1870-1950: Sexual

Divisions and Social Change (Bloomington, IN, 1984), pp. Jowitt, and K. (82)

71. Jones, Workers At Play: A Social and Economic History of

Leisure, 1918-1939 (London, 1986) equates “leisure” with

cinema, church, drink, gambling, holidays, sport, hobbies, magazines,

and clubs but does not discuss sexual activities in dancehalls or

courtship. 7, 1891; Turner, Short History, pp.

139-41.

James Burnley, a reporter for the Bradford Observer, reflected the

anxieties of the middle classes in his depictions of saucy behavior by

factory women. 121-2.

28. (23) “Courters” hurried up their wedding day because

“a child was on the way,” but mothers who failed to wed in

accordance with working-class customs were commonly considered

disgraceful outcasts. For middle-class antagonisms, see Smith, The Lion and the

Eagle,” unpublished novella.

Chasing the terrified new lad out of the mill,

17. Female spinners, facing faster speeds and

additional frames to tend, cursed their young tormentors among the

bobbin boys but feared sexual harassment from overlookers or senior

foremen. Frank Mort, Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in

England since 1830 (London, 1987), pp. Female weavers in Belgian cotton textile factories developed

more individual acts of sexual humiliation, which their male victims

called rape. Especially relevant for this paper is Monika

Blaschke’s exploration of the life experiences of farm maids, their

refusal to allow legal restrictions on marriage to control their

sexuality or emigration, and local rituals with sexual overtones in

“‘No Way but Out’: German Women in Mecklenburg,” pp.

35-42 in Christiane Harzig, ed., Peasant Maids–City Women: From the

European Countryside to Urban America (Ithaca, NY, 1997).

39. English historians, such as James Hammerton, have applied the

nineteenth-century term “rough usage” almost exclusively to

male actors.

9. 196-99, 105.

38. For the passionate, experienced nature of Yorkshire mill

lasses’ sexuality, see Emma Briggs in “Uprooted,” p. Reynolds, “Reflections on Saltaire,” in Jowitt,

Model Industrial Communities, p. pp. 7, 12, 17-19, 28; April

4-7, 15, 1913; Providence Bulletin, Jan 11, 13, 1913; Labor Advocate

(Providence weekly), Jan. 29-39,

especially p. (13) Observations by the state and private relief agencies

provide public constructions of the private lives of immigrant people.

More rare is evidence on sexual behaviors from within the ethnic

community, such as the fiction of Hedley Smith that portrays the

persistence of Yorkshire custom and behavior in New England mill

villages.

50. Rowland T. James, “Paternalism in

Mid-Nineteenth Century Keighley, pp. And I was! For that is the way Nature

plans it, making it up to women for all the spiteful things she heaps

on them otherwise. Phyllis Bentley to Hedley Smith, Oct. Mary H. candidate, University of Leeds, work in

progress, cited by permission, e-mail, March 16, 2005.

Mary-Blewett@uml.edu

77. He will carry this lesson into the mill and the union where

he will face those same female weavers on new grounds of respect tinged

with fear. Laurence Gross, The Course of Industrial Decline: The Boott

Cotton Mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, 1835-1955 (Baltimore, 1993), p.

66; e-mail, September 5, 2005, Larry Gross to author.

93. Smith wrote over a dozen unpublished novellas,

including a three-part trilogy “The Millmaster,” “The

Tongue-Tied Town,” and “The Lion and the Eagle” set in

his fictional mill village of “Briardale.” The published work,

correspondence with his publisher, a transcript of the 1997 taped

interview with his children, and the cited e-mails are in the archives

of the American Textile History Museum, Lowell, MA. 59-60.

91. In a flash the lad is

alone, bewildered, and at their mercy. 128 and 129 in Ben Turner’s,

Short History of the General Union of Textile Workers (Heckmonewike,

Yorkshire, 1920) of the 1891 Manningham strike committee with sixteen

women and eleven men.

1. But men and women weavers shared the oiling of their machinery in

post-Civil War American cotton mills, and presumably also in Lancashire

and Yorkshire. Karen Majewski argued in Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a

Polish-American Identity, 1880-1939 (Columbus, OH, 2003) that Polish

language literature offered the possibility to the “community for

reading itself as Polish in an American context,” p. Also the

description of Cissie Petty, Yankee Yorkshirewomen, p. (65)

68. al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World

(Chapel Hill, NC, 1987), pp. 207-233, and Maria

Bottomley, “Women and Industrial Militancy: The 1875 Heavy Woolen

Dispute,” in Employers and Labour, pp. (33) In contrast, Jan

Lambertz suggested that in Lancashire cotton mills, working women

exchanged sexual information and tolerated “consensual sexual

play” between workers. Is it some

lad you’re thinking about?” “No it isn’t … 207-33.

58. Blackburn, In and Out the

Windows: A Story of the Changes in Working Class Life 1902-1977 in a

Small East Lancashire Community (Burnley, UK, 1978); Ben Turner, About

Myself, 1863-1930 (London, 1930); James Lawson, Letters to the Young on

Progress In Pudsey During the Last Sixty Years (Stanningley, UK, 1887).

10. For if they are right women they can always hold a

man by that he has between his legs, and make him dance to their tune

and follow to their leading for as long as they want. But Smith was never a textile worker; his

father had been an artisan craftsman. xiii-xxvi, especially p. 104-119, esp. His days of intimidating the women of his

family with his aggressive sexuality are over. Not a flaw in your whole being escapes

them. Also see, Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. B. 104, 108-110, Martha

Hobson and Emily Binns in “Squire Widdop’s Wooing,” pp.

31, 52, The Yankee Yorkshireman, Barbara Craven in “The

Partnership,” p. On Salt, Reynolds, “Reflections,” in Jowitt, Model

Industrial Communities, pp. “Coortin Days,” John Hartley, Yorkshire Lyrics: Poems

Written in the Dialect as Spoken in the West Riding of Yorkshire (London, 1898), pp. See his,

Witte boorden, blauke kielen: patroons en arbeiders in de belgische

textieInijverheid in de 19e en 20e eeuw, [Belgium]: Ludion: AMSAB:

Profortex, 1997.

4. Sian Moore, “Women, Industrialization and Protest in

Bradford, West Yorkshire, 1780-1845″ (Ph.D. English labor historians heralded the

Manningham strike as the catalyst for the formation of the Independent

Labour Party in 1893. 37-8, The

Yankee Yorkshireman and David Greaves, “The Wise Child,” pp.

56, 63-4, More Yankee Yorkshiremen. (37)

Historians Charlotte Erickson and Rowland T. [A]fter a while you are able to

watch the machinery … (81) They select a young

lad to be “sunned.”

This fictional bifurcation reflected in part the writer’s

troubled marriage. Rudolph Vecoli called for more clarification of the lived and

imagined culture of ethnicity in “Comment: We Study the Present to

Understand the Past,” The Journal of American Ethnic History 18

(Summer 1999): 115-25. pp. The young victim is dragged away from the patriarchal weave

shed and other men by a group of women workers, the mature and

newly-married teaching the younger how to proceed. delivering

[filled bobbins] to the women at the looms in the weave shed…. His intense embarrassment at the unseemly staring

and unheard comments on his person suggests a sexual shaming as well as

class impudence. Priestley described

“sunning” as a mythic ritual. 11.

Majewski’s analysis of “Love, Sex, and the State of

Marriage” in chapter 6 demonstrates that marriage and sexuality in

the “ethnic romance” is often a metaphor for sustaining

national authenticity, pp. And

it’s been a lot happier and more sensible life than tewing your

guts out at a loom all day, and then coming home to breed babbies all

night to follow on in your footsteps at the mill.” (19) Martha

Denby’s experiences as a weaver shaped both her sexual

experimentation and her rebellion.

The memoirs of Yorkshire-born writer J. Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas: An Introduction (Seattle, 1997),

pp. 11, 12, 14, 16-17, 21, 24-25, 28, 30; Feb. Childs, “Boy Labour in late Victorian and

Edwardian England and the Remaking of the Working Class,” Journal

of Social History 23, 4 (Summer 1990): 783-803.

Women weavers in Yorkshire and in North Providence mill villages

used sexual humiliation to discipline their male co-workers in the weave

shed through a late nineteenth-century custom called

“sunning.” In his memoirs, J. Some of

that courting occurred on the mills’ loading docks with overhanging

roofs. 19, 23, Mar. Some of these lads may have

had uncontrollable partial erections during the sunning ritual, another

measure of being “nobbut half a man.” (87) Satisfied, the

screeching women romp off, finished with their prey and having “had

their fun.” (88) Bewildered by the cruelty and wanton mistreatment,

the lad will never forget what ordinary women in his mill village are

capable of. (11) Karen Majewski’s

study of ethnic fiction explores the uses of sexuality in the shaping of

a Polish-American identity. 74-85.

57. (56) Between 1851 and

1881, only about 20 percent of all married women in Bradford with one

child under the age of five worked outside the home. But with the outbreak of World War I in 1914,

Yorkshire migrants shifted their energies to homeland mobilization,

fierce patriotism, and the assertion of a more exclusive

“English” identity. 163.

43. Cassidy, ed., v. 141-64.

53. 8.

Hedley Smith’s fiction represents sexual and emotional ties as

the primary bonds of social life. 86, 89.

70. Girls as young as eleven entered the worsted

mills. (39) Young factory lads

developed nineteenth-century rituals of sexual humiliation and

“shouted naughty and pert obscenities,” when

“lassies” in textile mills removed their stockings before

work, and then pulled up the clothes of female sleepers during rest

periods. (30) Hedley

Smith’s short stories captured situations like these to reveal the

dilemmas and character of Yorkshire women, and they won the praise of

Yorkshire novelist Phyllis Bentley. 19 (Spring

1985): 48.

21. only just recently wed, flung

herself across his chest. 57-9, 61.

Sometimes, when I finished earlier than usual at the office and walked

home, the route I preferred took me past one of the largest mills in

the district, often just when the women were coming out. See the descriptions of Bessie King, “The Conscience of

Mr. (80) Smith probably absorbed

accounts of this sunning ritual over pork pies and pints of bitter at

the Greystone Social Club. I’d learned a lesson unknown to myself…. 122-44.

Smith’s narratives reveal the social scripting of sexual

behaviors among the “lads” and “lasses.” His fiction

also portrays conflicts and tensions among working-class men and women

and the uses of patriarchy in controlling working women and unmarried

lasses. 84-106.

3. Smith acquired his knowledge of women weavers, courtship

customs, and working–class sexuality from village gossip and from his

connections among men at the Greystone Social Club. There were some

old traditions and customs that he’d have to go through before he was

accepted as one of them, that would hurt him in body and spirit alike

…, like being ‘sunned’….

15. (46) Mid-nineteenth-century paternalists in the West Riding

provided domestic training to mill lasses who were expected to drop out

of the workforce once married. (36)

These lasses embrace sexual encounters with men without hesitation or

shame, a reflection of Yorkshire views on their “essential”

female natures. Joanna Bornat’s concept of the marginalized lives of

Yorkshire working women offers an explanation for the sexual activities

of these mill lasses. and to feel that life and limb are not really in

peril. She forced her husband into a “serious rupture”

with his mother, breaking from his immediate family, depriving

Smith’s children of contact with their nearby grandparents, and

distancing Hedley from his brother Sam. In fact such were wed, except

[for] the outward ceremony at church….” (26) As late

nineteenth-century Yorkshire dialect poet John Hartley wrote:

… Priestley, Margin Released, pp. 29-61.

ENDNOTES

8. 39 and Sally Greaves in “The Wise

Child”, pp. (85) No woman weaver was

supposed to touch or adjust her looms, although many did to speed their

work. Employed

as an accountant and business manager, Smith’s fiction explores

class structure but not outright class conflict or labor activity. Still

the Rhode Island data on strike activities in 1906-1913 suggest that the

migration of Yorkshire worsted workers loosened the strict sexual

division of labor, increased the age of female workers, and opened new

opportunities for them in labor protest. 42-3, 54-61, quote, p. Memo of personal conversation with Bart De Wilde, participant

in Global Textile Workers conference, Amsterdam, November 2004. These overlookers, always men, had once been weavers and

usually enjoyed lifetime employment at one mill. One young

Yorkshire-born Briardale lass contemplated the power relations between

the sexes.

54. 60, More Yankee Yorkshiremen. (25) Some of these Yorkshire

customs had deep roots in pre-factory mill villages. Tony Jowitt, “The Retardation of Trade Unionism in the

Yorkshire Worsted Textile Industry,” J. “Reach

us the oil can here.” They all have agreed. But for a

lass to use sexuality to climb out of her class or for her to be

educated beyond village norms led to public denunciations of the upstart

as a whore or of her family as “uppity.” (15) Mill lasses

learned from each other ways of countering conception, for example with

herbal abortificients such as pennyroyal. Even if forewarned by his more

experienced mates, the young victim could scarcely believe the actuality

of the ritual. 16, 19, 2002.

64. For a mill lass with

little future for advancement in the workforce, sexual experimentation

seemed the next logical step on the road to marriage and female

adulthood, while she turned over her Saturday wage packet to her family.

Indeed pregnancies among brides in mill villages were commonplace in

Yorkshire and Lancashire, but in the cotton industry wives worked and

joined in union activities.

The weavers, one and all, have their [mostly female] eyes upon you;

they are taking notes of and commenting upon your personal appearance,

and the cut of your garments. Reynolds, “Reflections,” in Jowitt, Model Industrial

Communities, pp. Sinke, Dutch Immigrant Women, p. (98) As labor activists in North

Providence, they seemed not only indifferent to American racialized

ethnic distinctions, especially the extreme racialization of Italian

workers in New England, but demonstrated their willingness to join with

these and other immigrant groups to achieve mutual class aims. Many women cotton weavers,

who feared public shaming as victims of sexual violation or blacklisting

as troublemakers, responded by changing jobs and warning other women.

Lancashire working women apparently did not confront abusers directly or

individually.

66. (76) As a “right woman,” Nance

uses her physicality to show that she minds him no more than a

“bairn” or a puppy. Women weavers also faced intensifying work loads, arbitrary

fines, and pressure from overlookers eager for higher output to win

bonuses. But no sooner have you recovered from one embarrassment than you

are thrown into the midst of another.” Burnley described the female

weavers as cheerful, spirited, and some of them good-looking.

22. The published and

unpublished work remain the property of Portia Thompson, Wakefield, RI

and of Duncan Smith, Professor Emeritus, Department of German Studies,

Brown University, Providence, RI and are quoted with their permission,

e-mails, Nov. Maria Bottomley

argued that female strike leaders in 1875 won wage increases and

organized a weavers’ union for men and women in Batley and Dewsbury

near Huddersfield, Yorkshire. On Lancashire immigrants in Rhode Island, Paul Buhle, “The

Knights of Labor in Rhode Island,” Radical History Review 17

(Spring, 1978): 39-73; Mary H. Thompson, “Homage to Tom Maguire,” Essays in

Labour History, Asa Briggs and John Saville, eds., (London, 1960):

276-315; J. E-mail, Portia Smith Thompson, Feb. “It was pretty early, but I haven’t a single regret,

except that I might have started sooner.” After three years, they

married, and his wife left her mill job. 35-6. In fictional Briardale, heavy breasts, big hips, ample

“bums,” long, luxuriant hair, and fair, rosy “peaches and

cream” complexions define the male ideal of female beauty. Labor activist Ben Turner’s account of the

Manningham strike in which he played a key role included his keen

appreciation of the “brave” but nameless women who outnumbered

men on the strike committee. Some young women in Bradford, however,

confronted abusive overlookers individually. (51) Their marginalization from skilled work and

union activity prompted them to move actively toward female adulthood

and marriage, preparing them to leave the paid workforce unlike their

counterparts in Lancashire. (91) Women weavers

confronted overseers every day over the assignment of warps which

determined their weekly wages. Blewett, Constant Turmoil: The Politics

of Industrial Life in Nineteenth-Century New England (Amherst, 2000),

Chapter 7.

6. (94)

5. (41) On the

whole, sexual tensions during nineteenth-century industrial change

seemed to victimize females. (101) Yorkshire working

women, who became far more organized into textile unions by 1914, may

have experienced this shift.

26. A perceptive reviewer of Smith’s second collection of

short stories suggested that like D.H. (100)

13. Their

daughter Portia once slipped into the house, declaring that she had

located evidence of her mother’s English roots in Yorkshire to

which her father replied dryly: “I always knew that I had married a

Yorkshire lass.” (74)

59. A. Studies of

specific Yorkshire strikes in 1868, 1875, 1876, and 1891 indicate that

women textile workers led by older, married weavers worked together to

resist wage cuts in spite of community disapproval. (10)

Analysis of working-class female European immigrants to the United

States at the turn of the century based on ethnic fiction set in that

era offers some glimpses of female sexuality. J. Rowley,

The Observer (Scituate. And it was still the

custom, in some mills if not in that particular one, for the women to

seize a newly-arrived lad and “sun”‘ him, that is, pull his trousers

down and reveal his genitals. These older, experienced women workers provided the female

leadership during late nineteenth-century strikes.

81. Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family, pp. His vision of Briardale is a

rich deposit of the persistent uses of Yorkshire dialect and social

customs to counter the traditional “invisibility” of English

immigrants and provide evidence on the experiences of courtship and

sexuality in ethnic culture. Karl Ittmann, Work, Gender and Family in Victorian England (New

York, 1995), pp. 63.

In Smith’s Briardale tales, mill villagers in Yorkshire

expected working-class lads and lasses to have “their fun”

until a mutually desired pregnancy led to a chapel wedding. H. Customs involving assertive female

sexuality among the Yorkshire working class, such as the sunning ritual,

represented a response to specific circumstances in the turn of the

twentieth century worsted industry that reflected the antagonistic

relationships of class and sex. E. He is soiled. During the “Great War,” the

political allegiances of migratory Yorkshire people, who either left to

serve in the British military or stayed in Rhode Island and sent

donations, strengthened their connections to the Old Country. 28-37.

84. “The Wise Child,” pp. The “safe

period” in the female fertility cycle was however misunderstood and

useless for birth control, Knight, “Women and Abortion,” p.

59.

My thanks to Carol Morgan, Suzy Sinke, Peter Blewett, Felicity

Harrison, Joanna Bornat, and the two anonymous reviewers for valuable

suggestions and helpful comments. Female agency involved in Anglo-American sexual customs and gender

conflicts, reenacted in the fictional Rhode Island mill village of

“Briardale” and verified in Yorkshire memoirs, provides

suggestive evidence on the historic experiences of working-class

sexuality. H. (12) Daniel Bender used ethnic fiction and

working class memoirs to probe the varied responses of immigrant garment

workers in the Northeast to sexual harassment by bosses and male

workers. 87-94, 158-165.

101. Priestley, Margin Released: A Writer’s Reminiscences

and Reflections (London, 1963); Maggie Newbery, Picking Up the Threads:

The Complete Reminiscences of a Bradford Mill Girl, edited by James

Ogden (Bradford, UK, 1993); Elizabeth K. 107, and R. Unmanly tears streak his face, his flesh wincing from the

pain and the public humiliation by females. The behaviors and customs of Yorkshire working-class women

reveal their uses of individual and collective activities to define

their female adulthood and to confront on their own terms both gender

and class conflicts in the family, the workplace, and the trade union.

Literary texts carefully interpreted within appropriate primary sources

and historiographical contexts may reveal additional behaviors among

other marginalized workers, under-represented in formal labor activities

and hidden from view.

32. (57) As Joanna

Bornat pointed out, the opposition to and disapproval of occasional

female militancy from the General Union of Textile Workers (although

unionist Ben Turner supported female suffrage), from local union leaders

and male co-workers, and from working-class communities resulted in

“lost leaders” among women textile workers in the worsted

industry. 59-63, 66, More Yankee

Yorkshiremen; Yankee Yorkshirewomen, pp. B. 195. 57-66, 136-7, 153.

20. Cotton Factory Times, August 2, 1907, courtesy of Alan Fowler.

94. 58,

74.

Labor historian Tony Jowitt, comparing the robust labor activity in

the Lancashire cotton industry with late nineteenth and early twentieth

century Yorkshire, ascribes the “retardation” of union

organization largely to the vast numbers of low-paid, young female

workers who dominated weaving and spinning. 31-3, and as the major theme of

the novella “The Lion and the Eagle” and “The Tongue-tied

Town.”

35. (4) As a lad of fourteen, Hedley

Smith arrived in Rhode Island with his family in 1923, twenty years after the rebuilding of Greystone by a Yorkshire-based worsted firm.

Without classes to attend, the teen-aged Hedley with his brother Sam,

who was not allowed to enter the local mills, listened to “front

porch stories” about the bitter regrets and experiences of parents,

friends, and neighbors forced to relocate to New England from an

economically declining Yorkshire. Smith, “The Mill Folk,” pp. A Jowitt and A.J McIvor,

eds., Employers and Labour in the English Textile Industries, 1850-1939

(London, 1988), pp. In 1851, of married women who

worked in textiles 29 percent were over the age of thirty-five, while in

1881, 63 percent of women working in textiles [presumably as weavers]

were over thirty-five. It is not a mere passing examination that you are the victim of,

but an unmitigated, unblushing, microscopic stare, which you are not

likely to forget to the last moment of your existence; and the worst

of it is you are unable to retaliate. Lambertz, “Sexual Harassment in the Nineteenth Century

English Cotton Industry,” pp. 170-1.

24. Working wives with families in

Burnley, Lancashire, practiced similar family limitation, Diana Gittins,

The Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure in Britain, 1900-1939 (New York,

1982), pp. Blewett, “Diversities of Class Experience and the

Shaping of Labor Politics: Yorkshire’s Manningham Mills Strike,

1890-1891 and the Independent Labour Party,” forthcoming in Labor

History 47 (November 2006): 511-35.

The first thing he’d [a new lad] be doing would be … 127-8, 184-93.

University of Massachusetts, Lowell

69. Daniel Bender, “‘Too Much of Distasteful

Masculinity’: Historicizing Sexual Harassment in the Garment

Sweatshop and Factory,” Journal of Women’s History, 15

(Winter, 2004): 91-116.

90. 15, 1912.

55. ix-xii.

Memoirs of working-class life in early twentieth-century English

textile centers recount as a matter of course the weddings of pregnant

brides as a result of sexual experimentation during courting

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